What do they see society as being?
All S’s institutions reflect + reinforce economic (Capitalist base)
What is their view on education?
Social institutions (Ed) reproduce class inequalities Persuades alienated students + exploited workers, inequality = justified + acceptable
When did Althusser write?
What does ISA stand for?
Ideological State Apparatus
What are the 2 functions that education performs as an ISA according to Althusser?
How does education reproduce inequality?
Fails each generation of wc pupils
Ensuring end up in similar low £/skilled jobs as parents
How does education legitimate inequality according t Althusser?
Disguise true/ real function
Ed. tires to convince people that inequality = inevitable (natural talent)
Failure = result of individual not system
Supporting evidence for Althusser’s view on education?
Top positions in S = filled by upper mc
Went to public schools + Oxbridge
Ensures elite recruitment into these top positions
How would other conflict theories criticise Althusser’s work?
Like all traditional Marxists
Too much focus on class inequality
Completely disregards other inequalities
What does Althusser seem to claim?
Is this true?
We = all brainwashed into accepting our place in social hierarchy
BUT do we have some control over our educational achievements?
When did Bowles and Gintis write?
How is the correspondence principle learnt?
Trough hidden curriculum
Things that aren’t directly taught
E.g. accepting hierarchy, competition, working for rewards
What do Bowles + Gintis see the education system as?
Preparation for entering wider S
Creates new generations of workers
Ready to accept + serve capitalism
Do Bowles and Gintis believe education is meritocratic?
Ed = only made to seem fair
Stops them challenging system
How is the work of Bowles and Giant similar to that of Davis + Moore?
Both show = link between Ed + economy
HOWEVER, B+G view Rship negatively
Many pupils view experience at school as alienating + oppressive
What is a weakness of all Traditional Marxist views?
Too economically deterministic
Ignores other inequalities (gender/ ethnicity)
When did Willis write?
Was Willis a traditional Marxist?
What did study did Willis carry out?
Unstructured group interviews + observations
IOT uncover anti-school subculture of ‘lads’
Interviews allowed boys talk freely about experiences
What are the 2 advantages to Willis’ study?
- Lots of in depth data
2. High in validity
What are the 5 disadvantages of Willis’ study?
- Can’t be easily repeated
- Time consuming
- Small sample (12) - unrepresentative
- ‘lads’ = mucking around during interview, reduces validity of results
Describe Bowles + Gintis’ study…
Studied 237 New York high schools
Found schools rewarded personality traits that make for a submissive, comment worker
Used questionnaires + compared them to grades/ exam scores
Advantages: large sample, generalisable, reliable results
Disadvantages: Lack meaning.
When did Bourdieu write?
What is the main role of education for Bourdieu?
Reproduce class structure Justify class inequalities
According to Bourdieu what does each class have?
Cultural framework of ideas about what = good/bad taste
Where is the habits of your social class picked up?
Through socialisation in family
According to Bourdieu what do the dominant class have the power to do?
Impose their habits on Ed system
Decide what counts as educational knowledge
Who has more access to the culture of the dominant class according to Bourdieu?
Those from mc/rc backgrounds
Have cultural capital