Do they take a micro or macro approach?
Emphasises how individuals shape + construct society
Does this theory focus on inside or outside of schools?
Inside schools, such as classroom interaction
What is their aim?
Uncover processes which take place inside schools affecting individuals (labelling, pupil subculture, teacher-pupil interactions)
Understand meanings + motives that individuals give to their experiences at school
What did Rosenthal and Jackson (1968) study?
Rosenthal + Jacobson (1968) study…
Told teachers @ primary school in USA they devised new test, ID pupils that would ‘spurt’ ahead
Wasn’t true - standard IQ test, however teachers believed them
Tested all pupils, picked 20% at RANDOM, telling school, these = ‘spurters’
Returned 1 year later
Found that 47% of ID the year before had made significant progress
Effect was greater on younger children
What did Fuller (1984) study?
Studied black girls in a London Comprehensive
Yr 11 girls = high achievers in a school where most black girls were placed in low streams
Girls developed an anti-school BUT pro-education subculture + succeeded despite their refusal to conform
Girls rejected the -ve label placed on them by the school - SNP
What are the advantages of Rosenthal + Jacobson’s work?
High validity - conducted in natural environment
Overt /Covert - Knew they were being studied but didn’t know the true reason why, otherwise might have effected the results
What are the disadvantages of Rosenthal + Jacobson’s work?
Deception - Covert/overt
Harm to the participants - unethical to purposely hinder some of the pupils chance to improve
What are the advantages of Fuller’s study?
Demonstrates that labelling doesn’t always have a negative effect, it can lead to a SNP
What did Ball (1981) study?
Labelling, polarisation (pupil subculture)
Studied a beachside comprehensive in the process of abolishing banding (a type of streaming) in favour of teaching mixed ability groups
Found that once streaming was removes, the effect of anti-school subcultures declined too
However, teacher labelling continued - mc pupils = labelled as cooperative, reflected in their better exam results
What is an advantage of Ball’s study?
Shows that class inequalities can continue asa result of teachers’ labelling, even without the effects of subcultures/ streaming
What is a disadvantage of Ball’s study?
Difference in exam results may be due to external factor, not just inside teacher labelling
What did Sewell (1998) study?
Subcultures, racist labelling
Studied responses + strategies black pupils adopt to cope with racism in Ed
Found teachers had a stereotype ‘black machismo’ - sees all black boys as rebellious, anti-authority/ school
Black boys = more likely to be excluded as a result
Sewell ID 4 responses to racist labelling: rebels, conformists, retreatists, innovators
What were the 4 responses to racist labelling that Sewell ID?
- The Rebels - 18%, smallest but more influential
- The Conformists - 47%, largest group, not part of a subculture + = keen to avoid being labelled by teachers/ peers
- The Retreatists - 3%, tiny minority of isolated individuals who were disconnected form both school + peers
- The Innovators - 32%, pro-education but anti-school.
What is an advantages of Sewell’s study?
Shows that there is a variety of responses, only a small minority fit the ‘black macho lad’ stereotype that teachers tend to see too of them as
What is a disadvantage of Sewell’s study?
Danger of seeing underachievement of black boys as simply product of teachers’ prejudices
External factors also play part (media/ role models)