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J - Music History 3 > Definitions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Definitions Deck (69)
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1

Define nationalism in music. Who is this term associated with?

- Important element of 19th century musical style
- Patriotism expressed through music
- Influence of folk song and dance, myths and legends, landscapes, historical events
- Bedrich Smetana

2

Define tone row. Who is this term associated with?

- Fixed order of the twelve chromatic pitches
- Basis of a twelve-tone composition
- Undergoes manipulations including: transposition, inversion, retrograde, and retrograde-inversion
- Arnold Schoenberg
- Anton Webern

3

Define theme and variations. Who is this term associated with?

- Compositional procedure in which a theme is stated and then altered in successive statements; occurs as an independent piece or as a movement of a multi movement cycle
- Anton Webern

4

Define thematic transformation. Who is this term associated with?

- A basic theme is repeated throughout a work in different guises
- The theme may be changed rhythmically, melodically or harmonically
- Unlike a variation, the transformed theme takes on a new identity in a new context
- Franz Liszt

5

Define Heldentenor. Who is this term associated with?

- German for "heroic tenor"
- A male voice with a high range, possessing incredible strength and stamina
- Richard Wagner

6

Define Sprechstimme. Who is this term associated with?

- German for "speech-voice"
- A vocal technique developed Schoenberg and used for the first time in his song cycle Pierrot lunaire
- The singer/reciter performs what sounds like "pitched speaking"
- The singer initiates a note then drops the pitch slightly
- Indicated with an 'x' marked on the stem of the note
-Arnold Schoenberg

7

Define canon. Who is this term associated with?

- From the Latin for "law"
- Strict imitation of a musical line at a fixed interval throughout
- Can be complete polyphonic composition or a technique used within a work
- Arnold Schoenberg

8

Define song cycle. Who is this term associated with?

- A collection of art songs united by central theme or narrative thread
- Intended to be performed together
- Poetic text drawn from same author
- Robert Schumann

9

Define symphonic poem (tone poem). Who is this term associated with?

- One of the most popular forms of orchestral program music
- Single movement work, generally in free form, with literary or pictorial associations
- Invented by Franz Liszt, associated with Bedrich Smetana for this course

10

Define durchkomponiert (through composed). Who is this term associated with?

- A song structure that avoids repetition of entire sections of the music
- As a result, melody, harmony, and piano accompaniment are able to reflect the meaning of the text
- Robert Schumann

11

Define music drama. Who is this term associated with?

- Term used to describe the synthesis of music and drama
- Served to distinguish his operatic style from the "traditional" operas of his day
- Richard Wagner

12

Define rondeau. Who is this term associated with?

- A poetic form developed in the 14th century
- Generally, the poem consisted of 4 verses: the first verse was repeated partially in the second verse, and completely in the fourth verse
- The musical rondeau often took its shape from the poem's structure
-Arnold Schoenberg

13

Define mode of limited transposition. Who is this term associated with?

- A scale that is limited to fewer than the usual twelve transpositions; some can only be transposed once
- First mode of limited transposition is the whole tone scale
- Second mode is the octatonic scale whose pattern alternates semi-tones and tones
- Absence of a central pitch or pull to a tonic
- Olivier Messiaen

14

Define retrograde-inversion (in twelve-tone music). Who is this term associated with?

- Writing the tone row upside down and backwards
- Arnold Schoenberg
- Anton Webern

15

Define Tristan chord. Who is this term associated with?

- A half-diminished 7th chord heard in the opening measures of Tristan und Isolde, formed by the notes F-B-Dsharp-Gsharp
- Serves as a leitmotif throughout the opera for lover's passion
- Demonstrates the heightened chromaticism
- Richard Wagner

16

Define etude. Who is this term associated with?

- French for "study"
- Solo instrumental work intended to develop technical facility
- Focuses on one or more specific technical challenges
- Franz Liszt

17

Define libretto. Who is this term associated with?

- The text of an opera, oratorio, or cantata
- Usually written by someone other than the composer
- Giuseppe Verdi

18

Define homorhythmic texture. Who is this term associated with?

- All voices sing the same rhythm
- Results in a blocked chordal texture (homophonic)
- Delivers the text with clarity and emphasis
- Johannes Brahms

19

Define coloratura soprano. Who is this term associated with?

- A female voice with an especially high range
- Trained to execute breathtakingly difficult passages with great ability
- Giuseppe Verdi

20

Define ostinato. Who is this term associated with?

- A short rhythmic or melodic pattern repeated throughout a section or a work
- Bela Bartok

21

Define diminution. Who is this term associated with?

- A rhythmic device in which the note values of a melody are shortened
- As a result, the music sounds faster
- Arnold Schoenberg

22

Define aria. Who is this term associated with?

- Italian for "air" (an old English word for song)
- A solo song with orchestral accompaniment heard in an opera, oratorio, or cantata
- Highly emotional, often virtuosic
- May have lyrical or dramatic character
- Giuseppe Verdi

23

Define sonata form. Who is this term associated with?

- Formal structure often used in first movement of sonata cycle
- Consists of Exposition (statement of two or more contrasting themes), Development (departure), and Recapitulation (return)
- AKA sonata-allegro form
- Felix Mendelssohn

24

Define atonality. Who is this term associated with?

- Total abandonment of tonality (entering in a key)
- Atonal music moves from one level of dissonance to another, without areas of relaxation
- Arnold Schoenberg

25

Define en pointe. Who is this term associated with?

- French for "on point"
- A challenging dance technique practised by ballerinas (female dancers) and used in traditional ballet
- Requires the dancer to dance and balance on their toes with the help of specially constructed dance slippers
- Sergei Prokofiev

26

Define orchestral suite. Who is this term associated with?

- A group of orchestral movements drawn from a larger dramatic work such as a ballet
- Programmatic in nature
- Played in a concert setting, outside of its original dramatic context
- Sergei Prokofiev

27

Define ballet. Who is this term associated with?

- Highly stylized type of dance that often interprets a story
- First developed in the 17th century at the court of Louis XIV
- 19th century ballet reached its peak at the Russian court
- Russian dancers dominated the ballet scene throughout most of the 20th century
- Sergei Prokofiev

28

Define hemiola. Who is this term associated with?

- A temporary shift of the metric accents
- Notes grouped in threes are momentarily grouped in twos or vice-versa
- Robert Schumann
- Johannes Brahms

29

Define sourdine. Who is this term associated with?

- French for "mute"
- An instruction given to string and brass instruments to use their mutes
- Creates softer dynamics, veiled, subdued instrumental effects
- Olivier Messiaen

30

Define Lied. Who is this term associated with?

- The musical setting of a German poem
- For solo voice, generally with piano accompaniment
- Flourished in the 19th century
- Robert Schumann