Unit 4: An Introduction to 20th-Century Art and Music Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 4: An Introduction to 20th-Century Art and Music Deck (28)
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Radical painting style that emerged in Paris in the 1860's.


Expressionism in Music

Early 20th-century German style. Marked by extreme dissonance, angular melodies, irregular rhythmic groupings. Explored deeply psychological themes. For example, Erwartung, op. 17, Arnold Schoenberg.


Impressionism was fascinated with the play of light...

On subject matter.



A post-World War I style marked by a return to absolute music and traditional formal structures. Cultivated a less emotional (more detached) sensibility. For example, Symphony No. 1, op. 25 ("Classical"), first movement, Sergei Prokofiev.



A uniquely American musical style developed initially by African Americans in New Orleans, Chicago, and New York. Emphasized syncopation, inflected melodies (including "blue" notes: ♭3, ♭5, and ♭7) and improvisation. For example, West End Blues, Louis Armstrong.


Expressionism is exemplified in the works of...

Edvard Munch, Wassily Kandinsky, Oskar Kokoschka, Egon Schiele.


What kind of colour and painting techniques were experimented with in Impressionism?

Visible brushstrokes were favoured.


Minimalism in Music

A style of music that evolved in the latter half of the 20th century. Generally characterized by the seemingly endless repetition of short melodic patterns, complex cross-rhythms, and a return to tonal/modal principles. Its adherents include Steve Reich, Philip Glass, John Adams, and Michael Nyman. For example, Glassworks, Philip Glass.



A late 19th-century European artistic movement that drew its inspiration from non-Western sources, in particular tribal art and artifacts. An elemental, primal energy achieved through abstraction and use of geometric designs.


Second Viennese School

The triumvirate of early 20th-century composers formed by Schoenberg and his disciples Alban Berg and Anton Webern. Works demonstrate Expressionism. Developed the twelve-tone method. Their music was marked by atonality and contrapuntal textures. For example, Violin Concero, first movement, Alban Berg.



German art movement of the late 19th and early 20th century in which artists depicted subjective emotions, focusing on human conditions as far (angst), trauma, obsession.



Generally, a late 20th-century style that marked the return to tonal principles, lush orchestration, and expansive melodies. Characterized by heightened emotionalism. Example, Adagio for Strings, op. 11, Samuel Barber.


Pop art is closely identified with the works of...

Andy Warhol, Roy Lichenstein, Robert Rauschenberg, Jasper Johns.


Impressionism in Music

Late 19th- and early 20th-century French style associated most closely with the music of Claude Debussy and Maurice Ravel. Often programmatic, use of non-traditional scales (modes, whole tone, pentatonic), ninth chords, parallel harmonies, and blurring of the metrical pulse. For example, La cathedral engloutie, Claude Debussy.


Expressionism embraced distortion, exaggeration, angularity, and muted use of colour. True or false?

False, Expressionism embraced distortion, exaggeration, angularity, and bold use of colour.


Pop Art

An American art movement first developed in the late 1950's. Drew inspiration from popular culture (television, comic books, everyday items). Often playful, ironic, banal, even kitschy.


Minimalism is championed in the works of...

Donald Judd, Frank Stella, Dan Flavin, Mark Rothko.


Impressionism is exemplified in the works of...

Claude Monet, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Edgar Degas, Georgas Seurat, and Vincent van Gogh.



Also called aleatoric music. A style that evolved in the mid-20th century. Relied on randomness and chance to determine some of the aspects of the music and its performance. For example, Venetian Games, Witold Lutoslawski.



An art style that emerged in NYC in the 1960's. Marked by stark abstraction, geometric elements. Viewer's attention is drawn to the juxtaposition of shapes and colours.



Late Romantic characteristics extended into the 20th century. Expansive melodies, chromatic harmonies, lush orchestrations, affinity for programmatic elements. For example, Der Rosenkabalier, final trio, Richard Strauss.


Electronic Music

Any type of music created whole or in part by electronic means. May utilize recording devices (tape recorder), synthesizers, and more recently, computers. For example, Philomela, Milton Babbitt.


Post Modernism

A mid- to late-20th century architectural movement. It reacted against the pared-down style of the 1920 modernists, represented by the Bauhaus school. Saw a return of ornamentalism (use of columns, pediments, arcades).


Primitivism is exemplified in the works of...

Paul Gauguin, (early) Pablo Picasso.



Music that has no tonal centre, no sense of key. For example, Five Pieces for Orchestra, op. 16, first movement ("Premonitions"), Arnold Schoenberg.


Impressionism rejected formal portraiture in favour of...

Everyday scenes, nature.


Leaders of the Post-Modernist movement include...

Michael Graves, Philip Johnson, Robert Venturi.



A compositional approach developed in the 20th-century by the Second Viennese School. Any number of musical parameters (such as pitch, rhythm, dynamics, tone colour) are organized using a specific ordering (set) hat undergoes manipulation. Sometimes used as a synonym for dodecaphonic (or twelve-tone) music. For example, Le martial sans maitre, Pierre Boulez.