Unit 5: European Composers from the 20th Century Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 5: European Composers from the 20th Century Deck (340)
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1

Describe Mahler's symphonies:

"Mammoth," last word in this orchestral genre and serves as a glorious summation of the Viennese symphonic tradition.

2

What types of forms did Mahler use?

Traditional forms, such as sonata, rondo, theme and variations.

3

What Romantic style elements did Mahler use?

Heightened emotionalism, Sehnsucht (yearning), Weltschmerz (world-weariness), lush chromatic musical language characterized by broad lyricism.

4

Who represents the next step in German Lieder tradition established by Schubert, Schuman, Brahms, and Strauss?

Mahler.

5

Who developed the orchestral song cycle?

Mahler

6

Orchestral Sound Cycle

A group of songs for solo voice and orchestra.

7

Give examples of how Mahler made progressive use of harmony and tonality:

Sudden unexpected modulations; beginning in one key and ending in another; bitonality.

8

How did Mahler make use of exoticism?

Use of the pentatonic scale, Chinese texts in his last symphony.

9

Who were Mahler's symphonies influenced by, and how?

Beethoven; included choirs and soloists, and employed cyclic structure.

10

What does Mahler's No. 8, "Symphony of a Thousand" exemplify?

How he expanded performing forces on a grand scale.

11

True or false? Schumann was known as a master of orchestration, and often treated instruments in a chamber-like manner.

False, this was Mahler.

12

What was Mahler's choice of subject matter influenced by?

Nostalgia, soldier's marches, folk dances, drinking songs.

13

Mahler frequently used texts from a collection of poems entitled...

Des Knaben Wunderhorn (The Youth's Magic Horn).

14

Mahler was preoccupied with issues of...

Life and death, humankind's purpose on earth.

15

How does Mahler achieve organic unity in his Symphony No. 4 in G Major?

Cyclical construction. The same thematic material appears in more than one movement.

16

What is the genre of Mahler's Symphony No. 4 in G Major?

Symphony.

17

What is the language of the text in Mahler's Symphony No. 4 in G Major?

German.

18

What is the source of the text in Mahler's Symphony No. 4 in G Major, fourth movement?

Des Knaben Wunderhorn (The Youth's Magic Horn).

19

What is the structure of Mahler's Symphony No. 4 in G Major?

Four movements.

20

What are the performing forces in Mahler's Symphony No. 4 in G Major, fourth movement?

Large orchestra with mezzo soprano soloist (fourth movement only).

21

Symphony

A multi-movement orchestral work developed in the 18th century, especially by Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven. Typically in 4 movements, generally includes at least 1 movement in sonata form.

22

Cyclical Structure

Material heard in one movement recurs in later movements. Creates structural unity in a multi-movement work. A characteristic employed increasingly by Romantic composers in various genres, but notably in their symphonies.

23

What is the key of Mahler's Symphony No. 4 in G major, and what key does it end in?

It is in G major, but it ends in E major.

24

What is the formal structure of Mahler's Symphony No. 4 in G major?

Can be viewed as modified strophic with a rondo-like design.

25

What is the summary of text behind Mahler's Symphony No. 4 in G major?

The folk poem presents a child's optimistic and naive view of heaven. describing the bountiful feast prepared by the saints.

26

Scordatura Tuning

When the solo violin has been tuned a tone higher than normal. Imparts a course, rustic sound to the instrument.

27

Ravel is primarily known as an ___ composer.

Impressionist.

28

Describe Ravel's musical style:

Brilliant orchestration, incisive rhythms, and Lisztian virtuosity.

29

True or false? Ravel's stage works (both ballet and opera) demonstrate a clever wit and an eye for the theatrical.

True.

30

Birth/death years of Ravel:

1875 - 1937.