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Flashcards in Week 1 Deck (11)
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1

Describe how the piano changed in Romantic music style

- technological improvements (ex. cast iron frame that supported thicker strings-richer tone, invention of "double escapement" action-allowed rapid repetition of individual keys)
- pieces requiring greater virtuosity

2

Describe the formal structure of Romantic music style

- expansion and development of large forms: symphony, opera, song cycle
- cyclical structure, linking of movements
- development of miniature forms (ex. Lieder)

3

Describe the dynamic range of Romantic music style

- expanded to extreme levels
- markings in score are more specific (compared to earlier eras)

4

How did social changes in the 19th century affect music?

- audiences of a wide spectrum of social classes
- growing number of amateur musicians, ensembles, and choirs
- more concerts, need for more performance venues
- emergence of many virtuoso musicians

5

Describe the rhythm of Romantic music style

- increasingly complex and varied
- use of cross-rhythms, hemiola, irregular groupings
- tempo rubato applied by the performer (expressive speeding up or slowing down)

6

Describe the orchestral instruments of Romantic music style

- expansion of orchestra to include: harp, piccolo, English horn, trombone, tuba, contrabassoon
- improvements to instruments (ex. 7 pedals added to harp, enabling it to play in all keys)
- composers inspired to exploit expanded capabilities of instruments in demanding and virtuosic works

7

Name 4 non-musical people that reflect the spirit of Romanticism

- Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
- Napoleon Bonaparte
- Caspar David Friedrich
- Charles Dickens

8

Describe the harmony of Romantic music style

- increased chromaticism
- exploration of new tonal centres (ex. mediant, submediant)
- exploration of modal harmony

9

Describe the melody of Romantic music style

- lyrical and expansive
- influenced by folk song and dance

10

Describe how programmatic music was an element of Romantic music style

- trend in 19th century music
- instrumental music with extra-musical associations (literary, poetic, visual)
- descriptive titles that evoke listener's imagination
- orchestral genres included concert overture, symphonic poem, program symphony, and incidental music

11

What are 11 attitudes of 19th century art and music?

- Sehnsucht (yearning for the unattainable)
- Individualism
- Heightened emotionalism
- Weltschmerz (growing pessimism)
- Exoticism (distant, foreign)
- Nationalism
- Escapism
- Fascination with the supernatural
- Morbid fascination with death
- Art as religion
- Adoration of nature