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Flashcards in Development Deck (40)
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What 3 dimensions do we use to determine if we as individuals are normal?

intelligibility - do i understand the nature and motivation for my actions?

consistency - could i have predicted my action based on my own self-knowledge?

Control - can i prevent or produce my action when i want to do so?


What is the reliability of a test?

the consistency of the prediction over time, over predictors, over individuals, and over assessment techniques


What is the validity of a test?

The accuracy of a predictive statement

in other terms, does the test actually test what you think it should


Describe classical conditioning?

(Simple learning, Pavlovian conditioning, respondent conditioning)

pair an unconditioned response with an unconditioned stimulus  and you eventually get a condttioned response to that stimulus



Describe Operant Conditioning.

(Instrumental or Skinnerian Conditioning)

You use reinforcment schedules to either increase or decrease a behavior

Response, followed by Stimulus (reinforcement or punishment) leads to a new progreammed response


What is positive reinforcement? Negative reinforcement?

Positive reinforcement is the ADDITION of a good thing to increase a behavior

Negative reinforcement is you REMOVE a bad thing to increase a behavior


What is positive punishment? What is negative punishment?

Positive punishment is the ADDITION of a negative stimuli to decrease a behavior

Negative punishment is the REMOVAL of a good thing to decrease a behavior


What is a secondary reinforcer?

It's a conditioned reinforcer that was originally a neutral stimulus that was paired with an unconditioned reinforcer repeatedly

it gains a reinforcing funciton by itself


At what gestational age does birth normally occur?

37 to 42 weeks


What is the average US birthweight and length?

7.5 pounds between 18 and 22 inches


What is Couvade syndrome and what does it show?

WHen the father starts to experience some of the symptoms of the pregnancy along with the mother - weight gain, labor pain, etc.

Sympathy pain - generally recognized as a psychosomatic thing


What are the developmental tasks of the newborn? 5

1. adjustment to temperature changes and regulation

2. inflation of lungs and autonomic regulation of breathing

3. adjustment to sucking and swallowing

4. adjustment to elimination

5. adjustment to and sharpening of sensory inputs


When is the Apgar performed?

once at 1 minute and again at 5 minutes

use the best of the two scores if different


What are the 5 clinical signs in the apgar and how are they scored?

activity (muscle tone absent, arms and legs flexed, or active movement)

pulse (absent, <100, >100)

grimace - reflex irritability (flaccid, some flexion of extremities, active motion like sneeze, cough, or pull away)

appearance of skin color (blue - pale, body pink but extremities blue, or completely pink)

Respiration (absent, slow and irregular, vigorous cry)

0-2 for each


What apgar score is considered problematic at 1 minute? 5 minutes?

at 1 minute - less than 4 is severe

at 5 minutes - less than 7 places them at high risk for subsequent CNS dysfunction


What measure is often given to mothers to rule out the post baby blues vs depression?

the edinburgh post-natal depression scale


What is the term for a baby that is much more likely to cry and to cry longer and louder than is usual>



At what point does cooing usually start?

6-8 weeks


When does babbling start?

Usually in the 2nd month - 4-5 vowel sounds and 3 consonant sounds


A baby's first word usually occurs at what age?

11 or 12 months


By age 2.5 years, what sounds do kids usually have?

11 vowels sounds - mostly complete and 16 consonants (about 2/3 complete)


When does "stranger anxiety" usually develop?

7-8 months


What screening tool is used to chart early childhood development?

Denver Developmental Screening Test


or Ages and Stages Questionnaire


What are the 4 general functions covered by the Denver?

personal social

fine motor skills (drawing)


gross motor acts (walking)


What are the 3 levels of Kohlberg's Moral Development?

Pre-conventional (1. Obedience and punishment with deference to power 2. naively egoistic to satisfy self)

Conventional (3. approval of others 4. law and order or duty)

Pos-conventional (5. social contract 6. Principled conscience with internalized ideals)


What Piaget stage is associated with kids age 2-6?

pre-conceptual stage


what piaget stage is associated with kids ages 6-12?

concrete operations

(ability to use some logical operations like ordering and classification)


What piaget stage is associated with adolescence?

formal operations

includes inductive and deductive reasoning

hypothesis testing

ability to generate ideas and test without action - using abstraction

self analysis and self criticism


What is the most comon drug used by adolescents?



What is Erikson's distantiation vs. self absorption theory?

That you have to grow separately while you grow with a partner, otherwise you just become self absorbed to the exclusion of others