What 3 dimensions do we use to determine if we as individuals are normal?
intelligibility - do i understand the nature and motivation for my actions?
consistency - could i have predicted my action based on my own self-knowledge?
Control - can i prevent or produce my action when i want to do so?
What is the reliability of a test?
the consistency of the prediction over time, over predictors, over individuals, and over assessment techniques
What is the validity of a test?
The accuracy of a predictive statement
in other terms, does the test actually test what you think it should
Describe classical conditioning?
(Simple learning, Pavlovian conditioning, respondent conditioning)
pair an unconditioned response with an unconditioned stimulus and you eventually get a condttioned response to that stimulus
Describe Operant Conditioning.
(Instrumental or Skinnerian Conditioning)
You use reinforcment schedules to either increase or decrease a behavior
Response, followed by Stimulus (reinforcement or punishment) leads to a new progreammed response
What is positive reinforcement? Negative reinforcement?
Positive reinforcement is the ADDITION of a good thing to increase a behavior
Negative reinforcement is you REMOVE a bad thing to increase a behavior
What is positive punishment? What is negative punishment?
Positive punishment is the ADDITION of a negative stimuli to decrease a behavior
Negative punishment is the REMOVAL of a good thing to decrease a behavior
What is a secondary reinforcer?
It's a conditioned reinforcer that was originally a neutral stimulus that was paired with an unconditioned reinforcer repeatedly
it gains a reinforcing funciton by itself
At what gestational age does birth normally occur?
37 to 42 weeks
What is the average US birthweight and length?
7.5 pounds between 18 and 22 inches
What is Couvade syndrome and what does it show?
WHen the father starts to experience some of the symptoms of the pregnancy along with the mother - weight gain, labor pain, etc.
Sympathy pain - generally recognized as a psychosomatic thing
What are the developmental tasks of the newborn? 5
1. adjustment to temperature changes and regulation
2. inflation of lungs and autonomic regulation of breathing
3. adjustment to sucking and swallowing
4. adjustment to elimination
5. adjustment to and sharpening of sensory inputs
When is the Apgar performed?
once at 1 minute and again at 5 minutes
use the best of the two scores if different
What are the 5 clinical signs in the apgar and how are they scored?
activity (muscle tone absent, arms and legs flexed, or active movement)
pulse (absent, <100, >100)
grimace - reflex irritability (flaccid, some flexion of extremities, active motion like sneeze, cough, or pull away)
appearance of skin color (blue - pale, body pink but extremities blue, or completely pink)
Respiration (absent, slow and irregular, vigorous cry)
0-2 for each
What apgar score is considered problematic at 1 minute? 5 minutes?
at 1 minute - less than 4 is severe
at 5 minutes - less than 7 places them at high risk for subsequent CNS dysfunction
What measure is often given to mothers to rule out the post baby blues vs depression?
the edinburgh post-natal depression scale
What is the term for a baby that is much more likely to cry and to cry longer and louder than is usual>
At what point does cooing usually start?
When does babbling start?
Usually in the 2nd month - 4-5 vowel sounds and 3 consonant sounds
A baby's first word usually occurs at what age?
11 or 12 months
By age 2.5 years, what sounds do kids usually have?
11 vowels sounds - mostly complete and 16 consonants (about 2/3 complete)
When does "stranger anxiety" usually develop?
What screening tool is used to chart early childhood development?
Denver Developmental Screening Test
or Ages and Stages Questionnaire
What are the 4 general functions covered by the Denver?
fine motor skills (drawing)
gross motor acts (walking)
What are the 3 levels of Kohlberg's Moral Development?
Pre-conventional (1. Obedience and punishment with deference to power 2. naively egoistic to satisfy self)
Conventional (3. approval of others 4. law and order or duty)
Pos-conventional (5. social contract 6. Principled conscience with internalized ideals)
What Piaget stage is associated with kids age 2-6?
what piaget stage is associated with kids ages 6-12?
(ability to use some logical operations like ordering and classification)
What piaget stage is associated with adolescence?
includes inductive and deductive reasoning
ability to generate ideas and test without action - using abstraction
self analysis and self criticism
What is the most comon drug used by adolescents?
What is Erikson's distantiation vs. self absorption theory?
That you have to grow separately while you grow with a partner, otherwise you just become self absorbed to the exclusion of others