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Social and Biobehavioral Medicine > Drug and Alcohol Addiction > Flashcards

Flashcards in Drug and Alcohol Addiction Deck (32)
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1

What is abuse?

What is dependence?


Abuse is an intense desire to obtain increasing amounts of a particular drug to the exclusion of all other activities

Dependence is the body's physical need (addition) to a specific drug

2

Substance abuse disorders are distinguished by the presence of what characteristics compared to non-pathological substance use?


tolerance

withdrawal

compulsive use

substance related problems

3

What is withdrawal?


the presence of the characteristic withdrawal syndrome for the substance - so that the same or closely related substance is used to avoid or relieve withdrawal symptoms

4

What is tolerance?


a state of progressively decreased responsiveness to a substance and markedly increased amounts of the substance ingested to achieve the desired effect

5

WHat is the prevalence of substance use disorders in clinics?


20%!

6

What is the most common illicit drug used in the US?


marijuana

7

Of prescription medications, what are the most commonly abused?


pain relievers - opioids

8

Which age group uses the most drugs?


18-25 yr olds

9

Is there a gender difference in marijuana use?


not much - females a little less

10

What are the main risk factors for drug abuse


early exposure

peer pressure and social environment

alcohol advertising and marketing

biological and genetic factors

11

What are the particularly high risk groups for drug use?


adolescents

older adults

men

american indians and whites

mental illness

homeless

upper midwest

family history

12

Employed individuals have ___ number of users while unemployed have ___ rates of use.


higher

13

In general, inheritability for drug abuse ranges from what?


40-60%

14


WHat neurotransmitters are associated with the positive hedonic effects of drug abuse?


dopamine

opioid peptides

serotonin

GABA

15

What withdrawal effects are associated with the following:

dopamine

opioid peptides

serotonin

GABA


dopamine = dysophoria

opioid peptides = pain

serotonin = dysphoria

GABA = anxiety, panic attacks

16

In what ways are cannabinoids used medicinally?


antiemetic, increase appetite

anticonvulsant

analgesic

17

What percentage of marijuana users become addicted?


9%

18

What are the endocrine effects of cannabinoids?


decreased testosterone (and sperm count)

inhibit LH, prolactin, growth hormone, but not FSH

Reduces TSH and T4 in animals

19

What are the two main stimulants used most often in north america?


cocaine and methamphetamine

20

All stimulants increase what group of NTs?


monoamines:

domapine initially, but chronically depletes

noreprinephrine

serotonin (MDMA blocks reuptake and cocaine increases firing)

 

21

What are the two major classes of sedatives/hypnotics?


barbiturates

benzodiazepines

22

The symptoms rebound (withdrawal) from sedatives usually lasts for how long and in what percentage of patients?


up to 3 weeks - in about 50% of patients taking BDZs for more than a few months

23


What is symptoms reemergence and how is it different from symptom rebound?

it is NOT a withdrawal symdrome,...

it is the reoccurrence of the original disorder to the same level as before treatment

24

protracted withdrawal can last ___


several months

25

What neurotransmitter pathway reinforces alcohol abuse?


excitation of the VTA dopaminergic neurons

this facilitates glutaminergic transmission in mesolimbic and mesocortical areas

reinforces behavior

26


The average adult metabolizes 1 ounce every ___ hour(s) depending on body weight.


3 hours

27


How much higher is a woman's BAL compared to a man for the same amount of ingested alcohol?


20-25%

28

What two NTs does alcohol enhance to have an inhibitory function?


GABA and glycine

29


ALcohol also ____ conduction of serotonin receptors.


enhances

30

What symptoms would you expect to see with alcohol withdrawal?


seizures, tachy, HTN, fever

later on you can have hallucinations