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Flashcards in Developmental Psych Deck (93)
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1

Developmental Psychology

Describe and explain changes in human behavior over time

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knowledge gained through experience

British Empiricist school of thought (Hobbes, Berkely, Hume, Mill, and Mill)

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Rousseau

society was not only unnecessary but also a detriment to optimal development; Emile

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studying the mind as it functioned to help the individual adapt to the environment

Functionalist system of thought

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G. Stanley Hall

father of developmental psychology

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importance of environmental influences in child development; believed emotions, as well as thought, were acquired through learning

Watson

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development occurred as a maturational (biological) process regardless of practice or training; nativist

Gesell

8

psychodynamic orientation; role of subconscious conflicts in the development of functioning and personality

Freud

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cognitive structuralists; children are actively involved in their own development

Piaget

10

compares groups of subjects at different ages

Cross sectional

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specific group over an extended period of time

Longitudinal

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several groups of different ages are studied over several years

Sequential cohort

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collate facts about a particular subject and their environment in order to gain a better perspective

Clinical method (case study)

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human capabilities are innate and individual differences are largely the result of genetic difference

Nature

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human capabilities are determined by the environment and shaped by experience

Nurture

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Gene

basic unit of heredity

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Allele

two different forms of a gene; dominant and recessive

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total genetic complement

Genotype

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collection of expressed traits; observable characteristics

Phenotype

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Tryon

maze-bright vs maze-dull rats; learning ability had a genetic basis

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Terman

first study of gifted children; large scale longitudinal study

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Klinefelter’s syndrome

possession of an extra X chromosome in males

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Turner’s syndrome

possession of only one X chromosome in females

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Zygote

sperm cell fertilizes the egg cell and forms a single cell

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fertilized egg travels to uterus and implants in uterine wall

Germinal period

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eight weeks following germination

Embryonic period

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Fetal period

third month; measurable electrical activity

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behaviors that occur automatically in response to a given stimulus

Reflexex

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turning of the head in the direction of a stimulus that touches the cheek

Rooting

30

Moro

infants react to abrupt movements of theirs heads by flinging out the arms, extending their fingers, and then bringing their arms back to their bodies