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Flashcards in Social Psych Deck (96)
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1

effect of competition on performance; people perform better on familiar tasks in the presence of others

Triplett

2

McDougall and Ross

first textbooks

3

social approval influences behavior

Verplank

4

behavior is motivated by anticipated rewards

Reinforcement Theory

5

behavior learned through motivation

Social Learning Theorists (Bandura)

6

people are aware of the social roles they are expected to fill

Role Theory (Bindle)

7

people prefer consistency and will change or resist changing attitudes

Consistency Theories

8

Heider’s Balance Theory

balance exists when all three (P, O, and X) fit together harmoniously (one or three positives); without balance there will be stress (zero or two positives) and a tendency to remove stress to achieve balance

9

Festinger’s Cognitive Dissonance Theory

conflict that you feel when your attitudes are not in synch with your behavior

10

Free-choice dissonance

a person makes a choice between several desirable alternatives

11

Post-decision dissonance

emerges after choosing

12

Spreading of alternatives

relative worth of the two alternatives is spread apart

13

Forced-compliance dissonance

forced into behaving in a manner that is inconsistent with beliefs or attitudes

14

Festinger and Carlsmith

dissonance reduced by believing that they actually enjoyed the task

15

Minimal (insufficient) Justification effect

if external justification is minimal, one will reduce their dissonance by changing internal cognitions

16

Two main principles of Cognitive Dissonance

If a person is pressured to say or do something contrary to their attitudes, there will be a tendency to changes attitudes

The greater the pressure to comply, the less the attitude will change

17

Bem’s Self-Perception Theory

When attitudes about something are weak or ambiguous, you observe your own behavior and attribute an attitude to yourself

People infer what their attitudes are based upon observation of their own behavior

A person’s initial attitude is irrelevant and there is no discomfort produced by behavior

18

Overjustification effect

if a person is rewarded for doing something they already like doing, they may stop liking it

19

Hovland’s Model

Communication of persuasion--three components (communicator, communication, and situation)

The more credible the source, the greater the persuasive impact

20

Hovland and Weiss

high credibility sources were more effective

21

Sleeper effect

over time, persuasive impact of high credibility source decreased while the persuasive impact of low credibility source increased

22

Two-sided messages

contain arguments for and against

23

Sources can increase credibility by arguing _____

against their own self-interest

24

Petty and Cacioppo’s Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion

Two routes to persuasion--central (issue is very important to us) and peripheral (not very important or we cannot clearly hear the message)

25

strong arguments change minds more often than weak messages

Central persuasion

26

strength of argument doesn’t matter; how, by whom, or in what surroundings are more important

Peripheral persuasion

27

Resistance to Persuasion

McGuire--Analogy of Inoculation

28

Cultural truisms

beliefs that are seldom questioned

29

Refuted counterarguments

first presenting arguments against and then refuting the arguments

30

Belief perseverance

people will hold beliefs even after those beliefs have been shown to be false