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Flashcards in Cram Session Deck (183)
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1

unconscious forgetting of anxiety-producing memories

repression

2

deliberate, conscious form of fogetting

suppression

3

person attributes their forbidden urges to others

projection

4

repressed wish is warded off by its diametrical opposite

reaction formation

5

process of developing a socially acceptable explanation for inappropriate behavior or thoughts

rationalization

6

reverting to an earlier stage of development

regression

7

transforming unacceptable urges into socially acceptable behaviors

sublimation

8

pent-up feelings are discharged on objects and people less dangerous than those objects or people causing the feelings

displacement

9

proposed gain-loss principle

Aronson and Lindor

10

studied conformity with lengths of lines

Asch

11

developed social learning theory

Bandura

12

developed self-perception theory; androgyny

Bem

13

doll preferences

Clark and Clark

14

two factors that could lead to non-helping: social influence and diffusion of responsibilities

Darley and Latane

15

suggested gender differences in conformity where not due to gender but to differing social roles

Eagly

16

developed cognitive dissonance theory and social comparison theory

Festinger

17

balance theory; attribution theory, and dispositional and situation attributions

Heider

18

studied attitude change

Hovland

19

groupthink

Janis

20

belief in a just world

Lerner

21

three categories of leadership: autocratic, democratic, and laissez-faire

Lewin

22

studied psychological inoculation to resist persuastion

McGuire

23

studied obedience

MIlgram

24

studied political norms

Newcomb

25

developed elaboration likelihood model of persuasion

Petty and Cacioppo

26

relationship between anxiety and the need of affiliation

Schachter

27

autokinetic effect and Robber's Cave experiement

Sherif

28

mere exposure effect and social facilitation effect

Zajonc

29

prison simulation

Zimbardo

30

strange situation

Ainsworth

31

relationship between parental style and discipline

Baumrind

32

attachment in human children

Bowlby

33

children have an innate capacity for language acquistion; surface structure and deep structure of a sentence; transformational rules

Chomsky

34

eight stages of psychosocial development covering the entire lifespan

Erikson

35

five stages of psychosexual development

Freud, S

36

development due primarily to maturation

Gesell

37

males and females have different orientations toward morality

Gilligan

38

founder of developmental psychology

Hall

39

contact comfort in bond formation

Harlow

40

longitudinal study to examine developmental trajectories of children's temperment

Kagan

41

moral development using moral dilemmas

Kohlberg

42

tabulas rasa

Locke

43

imprinting in birds

Lorenz

44

four stages of cognitive development

Piaget

45

development could unfold without help from society

Rousseau

46

longitudinal study of gifted children

Terman

47

genetic basis of maze-running rats

Tryon

48

zone of proximal development

Vygotsky

49

breaks consciousness into elements by using introspection

Structuralism

50

stream of consciousness; studies how mind functions to help people adapt to environment; attacked structuralism

Functionalism

51

psychology as objective study of behavior; attacked mentalism and the use of introspection

Behaviorism

52

whole is something other than the sum of its parts

Gestalt

53

behaviorism is not adequate explanation of human behavior; humans think, believe, are creative

Cognitivism

54

behavior is a result of unconscious conflicts, repression, defense mechanisms

Psychoanalysis

55

looks at people as wholes; humans have free will; psychologists should study mentally healthy people, not just mentally ill/maladjusted ones

Humanism

56

human behavior must be considered within the context of complex systems

Systems psychology

57

psychodynamic theorist; inferiority complex

Adler

58

trait theorist; functional autonomy; idiographic vs. nomothetic

Allport

59

trait theorist who used factor analysis to study personality; fluid vs. crystallized intelligence

Cattell

60

psychoanalytic concepts within a behaviorist framework; approach-avoidance conflicts

Dollard and Miller

61

trait theorist who proposed two main dimensions: introversion-extroversion and emotional stability-neuroticism

Eysenck

62

psychodynamic theorist who suggested there were three ways to relate to others: moving toward, moving against, and moving away from

Horney

63

psychodyanmic theorist; personal unconscious vs. collective unconscious; archetypes

Jung

64

individual as a scientist

Kelly

65

phenomenological personality theorist who developed field theory

Lewin

66

phenomenological personality theorist know for hierarchy of needs and self-actualization

Maslow

67

need for achievement

McClelland

68

critic of trait theories

Mischel

69

studied locus of control

Rotter

70

attempted to relate body type (somatotype) to personality type

Sheldon

71

field dependence using rod-and-frame test

Witkin

72

cognitive behavior therapist known for theory for depression

Beck

73

rational-emotive therapy

Ellis

74

developed system to classify mental disorders

Kraepelin

75

client-centered therapy; unconditional positive regard

Rogers

76

complex perceptual, cognitive, and behavioral processes

cerebral cortex

77

movement

basil ganglia

78

emotion and memory

limbic system

79

sensory relay station

thalamus

80

hunger and thirst, emotion

hypothalamus

81

sensorimotor reflexes

inferior and superior colliculi

82

refined motor movements

cerbellum

83

vital functioning

medulla oblongata

84

arousal, alertness, and attention

reticular formation

85

hunger center; lesions lead to aphagia (lacking hunger)

lateral hypothalamus

86

satiety center; lesions lead to hyperphagia (very hungry)

ventromedial hypothalamus

87

sexual activity; lesions lead to inhibition of sexual arousal

anterior hypothalamus

88

pleasure center identified by Olds and Millner; inhibits aggression

septal nuclei

89

defensive and aggressive behavior; studied by Kluver and Bucy

Amygdala

90

memory

Hippocampus

91

letters, word; language related sounds, speech, writing, arithmetic, complex voluntary movement

dominant hemisphere

92

faces, music, emotions, creativity, sense of direction

nondominant hemisphere

93

voluntary muscle control; Alzheimer's disease

Acetylcholine

94

fight or flight responses

Epinephrine (adrenaline)

95

wakefulness and alertness; depression and mania

Norepinephrine (noradrenaline)

96

smooth movements and steady posture; schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease

Dopamine

97

mood, sleep, eating, dreaming; depression and mania

Serotonin

98

brain "stabilizer"; anxiety disordes

GABA

99

natural pain killer

Endorphin

100

Benzodiazepines

reduces anxiety

101

barbiturates

sedatives

102

amphetamines

narcolepsy

103

tricyclics and MAO inhibitors

depression

104

methylphenidate (Ritalin)

ADHD

105

chlorpromazine (Thorazine)

schizophrenia

106

Haloperidol (Haldol)

schizophrenia

107

Lithium

Bipolar

108

identified parts of the brain associated with producing language

Broca

109

studied flight or flight; investigated homeostatis

Cannon

110

demonstrated simple learning behavior is sea snails

Kandel

111

studied how brain damage leads to impairment in sensory, motor, and language functions

Luria

112

used electrodes and electrical stimulation to map the brain

Penfield

113

identified part of the brain associated with understanding spoken language

Wernicke

114

caused by the regeneration of rhodopsin

dark adaptation

115

three types of color receptors

Young and Helmholtz (trichromatic)

116

three opposing pairs

Hering (opponent process)

117

traveling wave theory of pitch

Bekesy

118

developed a list of depth cues

Berkeley

119

proposed filter theory of attention

Broadbent

120

developed the visual cliff

Gibson, E. and Walk

121

texture gradiants

Gibson, J.

122

developed place-resonance theory of pitch

Helmholtz

123

feature detection in visual cortex

Hubel and Wiesel

124

theory of isomorphism; insight in problem solving

Kohler

125

gate theory of pain

Melzack and Wall

126

refined ROC curve in signal detection

Swets

127

proposed volley theory of pitch

Wever and Bray

128

size constancy depends on apparent distance

Emmert's law

129

instinctual drift

Breland and Breland

130

studied taste-aversion learning

Garcia

131

developed principles of operant conditioning

Skinner

132

proposed law of effect; puzzle boxes to study problem solving in cats; trial and error learning

Thorndike

133

introduced experimental methods into field situations

Tinbergen

134

studied communication in honeybees

von Frisch

135

developed systematic desensitization to eliminate phobias

Wolp

136

behavior will be reinforced after a fixed number of responses (piecework)

Fixed-ratio

137

behavior will be reinforced after a varying number of responses (slot machines)

Variable-ratio

138

behavior will be reinforced for the first response after a fixed period of time has elapsed since the last reinforcement (going to the office to pick up bimonthly paycheck)

Fixed-interval

139

behavior will be reinforced for the first response after a varying period has elapsed since the last reinforcement (parent responding to crying child [from child's perspective])

Variable-interval

140

investigated the role of schemata in memory; memory is largely reconstructive

Bartlett

141

spreading activation model of semantic memory

Collins and Loftus

142

levels-of-processing theory of memory

Craik and Lockhart

143

studied memory using nonsense words and the method of savings; developed the forgetting curve

Ebbinghaus

144

theory of multiple intelligences

Gardner

145

devised divergent thinking to test creativity

Guilford

146

investigated heuristics in decision making

Kahneman and Tversky

147

studied eyewitness testimony

Loftus

148

water-jar problem to study effects of mental sets

Luchins

149

found support for gender differences in verbal abilities

Maccoby and Jacklin

150

parallel distributed processing theory

McClelland and Rumelhart

151

found capacity for short-term memory is seven (plus or minus two)

Miller

152

dual-code hypothesis

Paivio

153

semantic feature-comparison model

Smith, Shoben, and Rips

154

individual differences in intelligence were largely due to differences in amount of a general factor and a specific factor

Spearman

155

studied capacity of sensory memory using partial-report method

Sperling

156

proposed triarchic theory that divides intelligence into three types: componential, experiential, and contextual

Sternberg

157

used factor analysis to study primary mental abilities

Thurstone

158

hypothesized that language determines how reality is perceived

Whorf

159

does the test measure various facets of the subject?

Content validity

160

does the test look like it measures knowledge of the subject?

Face validity

161

does a written driving test indicate performance on the subsequent road test?

Criterion and Concurrent validity

162

does test performance predict future success as a history major?

Predictive validity

163

is test performance correlated with performance on a test measuring a theoretically related variable?

Construct and Convergent validity

164

is test performance not correlated with performance on a test measuring a theoretically related variable?

Discriminate validity

165

names (political affiliation)

Nominal/categorical

166

ranks (order of finish in horse race)

Ordinal

167

equal intervals (temperature); addition/subtraction

Interval

168

equal intervals + true zero point (income); add/subtract/multiply/divide

Ratio

169

introduced the concept of mental age

Binet and Simon

170

developed the RIASEC model of occupational themes

Holland

171

suggested that there were genetically based racial differences in IQ

Jensen

172

developed the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT); projective test designed to measure personality

Morgan and Murray

173

developed sentence completion test; projective test to measure personality

Rotter

174

developed the concept of ratio IQ

Stern

175

revised Binet-Simon IQ test

Terman

176

awareness of emotion reflects our physiological arousal and our cognitive experience of emotion

Cannon-Bard

177

people become aware of their emotions after they notice their physiological reactions to some external event

James-Lang

178

subjective experience of emotion is based on the interaction between changes in physiological arousal and cognitive interpretation of that arousal

Schachter and Singer (two-factor theory)

179

executive functioning

frontal lobe

180

hearing

temporal lobe

181

touch, temperature, and pain

parietal lobe

182

vision

occipital lobe

183

latent learning (knowledge only becomes clear when given an incentive to show it)

Tolman