Flashcards in Research Design, Statistics, Tests, and Measurements Deck (82)

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1

## tentative and testable explanation of the relationship between two or more variables

### Hypothesis

2

## characteristic or property that varies in amount or kind, and can be measured

### Variable

3

## state how the researcher will measure the variables

### Operational definitions

4

## Independent variable

### variable whose effect is being studied and the variable that the experimenter manipulates

5

## Dependent variable

### the response that is expected to vary with differences in the independent variable

6

## Correlational study

### IV is not manipulated

7

## Naturalistic observation

### researcher does not intervene; measures behavior as it naturally occurs

8

## Quasi-experiment

### IV manipulated but subjects not randomly assigned to groups

9

## True experiment

### IV manipulated and subjects randomly assigned to groups

10

## the group to which the researcher wishes to generalize their results

### Population

11

## subset of the population

### Sample

12

## Random selection

### each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected for the sample

13

## Stratified random sampling

### each subgroup of the population is randomly sampled in proportion to its size

14

## Representative sample

### the sample matches as many characteristics as possible of the population as a whole

15

## each subject is exposed to only one level of each independent variable

### Between-sample design

16

## match subjects on the basis of the variable that they want to control

### Matched-subjects design

17

## using the same subjects in both groups

### Within-subjects (repeated-measures) design

18

## all subjects will experience both levels, just in different orders

### Counterbalancing

19

## Confounding variables

### unintended independent variables that could differently affect the dependent variable

20

## treating both groups equally in all respects except for one variable

### Control group design

21

## control group is not necessarily similar to the experimental group since the researcher doesn’t use random assignment

### Nonequivalent-group design

22

## due to their expectations, the experimenter might inadvertently treat groups of subjects differently

### Experimenter bias

23

## neither the researcher who interacts with the subjects nor the subjects themselves know which groups received the IV or which level of the IV

### Double-blinding

24

## Demand characteristics

### any cues that suggest to subjects what the researcher expects from them

25

## Hawthorne effect

### tendency of people to behave differently if they know that they are being observed

26

## External validity

### how generalizable the results are

27

## Descriptive Statistics

### Organizing, describing, quantifying, and summarizing a collection of actual observations

28

## Frequency Distributions

### Graphic representation of how often each value occurs

29

## value of the most frequent observation in a set of scores

### Mode

30

## two values are tied for being the most frequently occurring observation

### Bimodal

31

## middle value when observations are ordered from least to greatest, or from greatest to least

### Median

32

## arithmetic average

### Mean

33

## Outliers

### extreme scores; mean is most sensitive

34

## Range

### smallest number in the distribution subtracted from the largest number

35

## Standard deviation

### typical distance of scores from the mean

36

## Variance

### square of the SD and is a description of how much each score varies from the mean

37

## tells us the percentage of scores that fall at or below that particular score

### Percentile

38

## indicates the number of standard deviations a score is away from the mean

### z-Score

39

## Normal distribution

### about 68 percent of scores fall within 1 SD of the mean; about 96 percent of scores fall within 2 SD of the mean

40

## t-Scores

### distribution has a mean of 50 and a SD of 10

41

## Correlation Coefficients

### Measure to what extent, if any, two variables are related

42

## change in value of one variable tends to be associated with a change in the same direction of the value of the other variable

### Positive correlation

43

## a change in value of one variable tends to be associated with a change in the opposite direction of the other variable

### Negative correlation

44

## graphical representation of correlational data

### Scatterplot

45

## attempts to account for the interrelationships found among various variables by seeing how groups of variables “hang together”

### Factor analysis

46

## Inferential Statistics

### Use a relatively small batch of actual observations to make conclusions about the entire population of interest

47

## Draw conclusions about population based upon research conducted on samples

### Significance Testing

48

## mistakenly reject the null hypothesis

### Type I error

49

## accept the null hypothesis when it is, in fact, false

### Type II error

50

## Beta

### probability of making a Type II error

51

## t-Tests

### used to compare the means of two groups

52

## ANOVA

### estimate how much group means differ from each other by comparing the between-groups variance to the within-group variance using a ratio (F ratio)

53

## Factorial design

### each level of a given IV occurs with each level of the other IV

54

## Interaction

### when the effects of one IV are not consistent for all levels of the other IV

55

## Chi-square test

### used when individual observations are names or categories

56

## Meta-Analysis

### Used to make conclusions on the basis of data from different studies

57

## assessing an individual's performance in terms of how that individual performs in comparison to others

### Norm-referenced testing

58

## concerned with the question of what the test taker knows about a specified content domain

### Domain-referenced (criterion-referenced) testing

59

## Consistency with which a test measures whatever it is that the test measures

### Reliability

60

## Test-retest method

### same test is administered to the same group of people twice

61

## Alternate-form method

### examinees are given two different forms of a test that are taken at two different times

62

## Split-half reliability

### test takers take only one test that is divided into equal halves

63

## Extent to which a test actually measures what it purports to measure

### Validity

64

## test’s coverage of the particular skill or knowledge area that it is supposed to measure

### Content validity

65

## whether or not the test items appear to measure what they are supposed to measure

### Face validity

66

## how well the test can predict an individual’s performance on an established test of the same skill or knowledge area

### Criterion validity

67

## when a test is used to predict future performance

### Predictive validity

68

## when a test is given at the same time as the criterion measure

### Concurrent validity

69

## testing the criterion validity of a test on a second sample, after you demonstrated validity using an initial sample

### Cross validation

70

## how well performance on the test fits into the theoretical framework related to what it is you want the test to measure

### Construct validity

71

## performance on the test is not correlated with other variables that the theory predicts that test performance should not be related to

### Discriminant validity

72

## Nominal (categorical) scale

### labels observations so that observations can be categorized

73

## Ordinal scale

### observations are ranked in terms of size or magnitude

74

## Interval scale

### actual numbers

75

## Ratio scale

### there is a true zero point that indicates the total absence of the quantity being measured

76

## Aptitude tests

### used to predict what one can accomplish through training; predict future performance

77

## Achievement tests

### attempt to assess what one knows or can do now

78

## Adaptive test

###
computerized achievement test that adapts to the test taker’s ability by assessing the accuracy of previously answered questions

79

## how far away a person’s score is from the average score for the particular age group the subject is a member of

### Deviation IQ

80

## self-rating device usually consisting of somewhere between 100-500 statements where there is a limited number of ways to respond; MMPI

### Personality inventory

81

## test taker is presented with stimuli and asked to interpret what they see; Rorschach, TAT

### Projective tests

82