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Flashcards in Research Design, Statistics, Tests, and Measurements Deck (82)
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1

tentative and testable explanation of the relationship between two or more variables

Hypothesis

2

characteristic or property that varies in amount or kind, and can be measured

Variable

3

state how the researcher will measure the variables

Operational definitions

4

Independent variable

variable whose effect is being studied and the variable that the experimenter manipulates

5

Dependent variable

the response that is expected to vary with differences in the independent variable

6

Correlational study

IV is not manipulated

7

Naturalistic observation

researcher does not intervene; measures behavior as it naturally occurs

8

Quasi-experiment

IV manipulated but subjects not randomly assigned to groups

9

True experiment

IV manipulated and subjects randomly assigned to groups

10

the group to which the researcher wishes to generalize their results

Population

11

subset of the population

Sample

12

Random selection

each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected for the sample

13

Stratified random sampling

each subgroup of the population is randomly sampled in proportion to its size

14

Representative sample

the sample matches as many characteristics as possible of the population as a whole

15

each subject is exposed to only one level of each independent variable

Between-sample design

16

match subjects on the basis of the variable that they want to control

Matched-subjects design

17

using the same subjects in both groups

Within-subjects (repeated-measures) design

18

all subjects will experience both levels, just in different orders

Counterbalancing

19

Confounding variables

unintended independent variables that could differently affect the dependent variable

20

treating both groups equally in all respects except for one variable

Control group design

21

control group is not necessarily similar to the experimental group since the researcher doesn’t use random assignment

Nonequivalent-group design

22

due to their expectations, the experimenter might inadvertently treat groups of subjects differently

Experimenter bias

23

neither the researcher who interacts with the subjects nor the subjects themselves know which groups received the IV or which level of the IV

Double-blinding

24

Demand characteristics

any cues that suggest to subjects what the researcher expects from them

25

Hawthorne effect

tendency of people to behave differently if they know that they are being observed

26

External validity

how generalizable the results are

27

Descriptive Statistics

Organizing, describing, quantifying, and summarizing a collection of actual observations

28

Frequency Distributions

Graphic representation of how often each value occurs

29

value of the most frequent observation in a set of scores

Mode

30

two values are tied for being the most frequently occurring observation

Bimodal

31

middle value when observations are ordered from least to greatest, or from greatest to least

Median

32

arithmetic average

Mean

33

Outliers

extreme scores; mean is most sensitive

34

Range

smallest number in the distribution subtracted from the largest number

35

Standard deviation

typical distance of scores from the mean

36

Variance

square of the SD and is a description of how much each score varies from the mean

37

tells us the percentage of scores that fall at or below that particular score

Percentile

38

indicates the number of standard deviations a score is away from the mean

z-Score

39

Normal distribution

about 68 percent of scores fall within 1 SD of the mean; about 96 percent of scores fall within 2 SD of the mean

40

t-Scores

distribution has a mean of 50 and a SD of 10

41

Correlation Coefficients

Measure to what extent, if any, two variables are related

42

change in value of one variable tends to be associated with a change in the same direction of the value of the other variable

Positive correlation

43

a change in value of one variable tends to be associated with a change in the opposite direction of the other variable

Negative correlation

44

graphical representation of correlational data

Scatterplot

45

attempts to account for the interrelationships found among various variables by seeing how groups of variables “hang together”

Factor analysis

46

Inferential Statistics

Use a relatively small batch of actual observations to make conclusions about the entire population of interest

47

Draw conclusions about population based upon research conducted on samples

Significance Testing

48

mistakenly reject the null hypothesis

Type I error

49

accept the null hypothesis when it is, in fact, false

Type II error

50

Beta

probability of making a Type II error

51

t-Tests

used to compare the means of two groups

52

ANOVA

estimate how much group means differ from each other by comparing the between-groups variance to the within-group variance using a ratio (F ratio)

53

Factorial design

each level of a given IV occurs with each level of the other IV

54

Interaction

when the effects of one IV are not consistent for all levels of the other IV

55

Chi-square test

used when individual observations are names or categories

56

Meta-Analysis

Used to make conclusions on the basis of data from different studies

57

assessing an individual's performance in terms of how that individual performs in comparison to others

Norm-referenced testing

58

concerned with the question of what the test taker knows about a specified content domain

Domain-referenced (criterion-referenced) testing

59

Consistency with which a test measures whatever it is that the test measures

Reliability

60

Test-retest method

same test is administered to the same group of people twice

61

Alternate-form method

examinees are given two different forms of a test that are taken at two different times

62

Split-half reliability

test takers take only one test that is divided into equal halves

63

Extent to which a test actually measures what it purports to measure

Validity

64

test’s coverage of the particular skill or knowledge area that it is supposed to measure

Content validity

65

whether or not the test items appear to measure what they are supposed to measure

Face validity

66

how well the test can predict an individual’s performance on an established test of the same skill or knowledge area

Criterion validity

67

when a test is used to predict future performance

Predictive validity

68

when a test is given at the same time as the criterion measure

Concurrent validity

69

testing the criterion validity of a test on a second sample, after you demonstrated validity using an initial sample

Cross validation

70

how well performance on the test fits into the theoretical framework related to what it is you want the test to measure

Construct validity

71

performance on the test is not correlated with other variables that the theory predicts that test performance should not be related to

Discriminant validity

72

Nominal (categorical) scale

labels observations so that observations can be categorized

73

Ordinal scale

observations are ranked in terms of size or magnitude

74

Interval scale

actual numbers

75

Ratio scale

there is a true zero point that indicates the total absence of the quantity being measured

76

Aptitude tests

used to predict what one can accomplish through training; predict future performance

77

Achievement tests

attempt to assess what one knows or can do now

78

Adaptive test

computerized achievement test that adapts to the test taker’s ability by assessing the accuracy of previously answered questions

79

how far away a person’s score is from the average score for the particular age group the subject is a member of

Deviation IQ

80

self-rating device usually consisting of somewhere between 100-500 statements where there is a limited number of ways to respond; MMPI

Personality inventory

81

test taker is presented with stimuli and asked to interpret what they see; Rorschach, TAT

Projective tests

82

Barnum effect

tendency of people to accept and approve of the interpretation of their personality that you give them