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Flashcards in Learning and Ethology Deck (60)
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1

goal of behavior is to reduce biological drive

Hull’s theory of motivation (drive-reduction theory)

2

Lorenz

understanding of animal behavior could be gained only out in the field

3

learning connections between different events

Classical conditioning (respondent conditioning)

4

stimuli that previously had no relation to a specific reflex could come to trigger that reflex

Pavlov

5

Reflex

unlearned response that is elicited by a specific stimulus

6

Acquisition

period during which an organism is learning the association of the stimuli

7

stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit the conditioned response

Generalization

8

stimulus that can reflexively elicit a response

Unconditioned stimulus

9

response reflexively elicited by and unconditioned stimulus

Unconditioned response

10

stimulus that, after conditioning, is able to elicit a non-reflexive response

Conditioned stimulus

11

response that, after conditioning, is elicited by a conditioned stimulus

Conditioned response

12

Extinction (classical conditioning)

repeatedly presenting the conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus

13

after extinction and a period of rest, presenting the conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus will again elicit a weak conditioned response

Spontaneous recovery

14

Second-order conditioning

neutral stimulus is paired with a conditioned stimulus rather than an unconditioned stimulus

15

Sensory preconditioning

two neutral stimuli are paired together and then one of the neutral stimuli is paired with an unconditioned stimulus

16

if the conditioned stimulus is a good signal and it has informational value, or is a good predictor of the unconditioned stimulus, the conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus will become associated

Contingency explanation of classical conditioning (Rescorla)

17

conditioned stimulus is a good signal for unconditioned stimulus and provides nonredundant information about the occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus

Blocking

18

Operant conditioning (instrumental conditioning)

learning the relationship between one’s actions and their consequences

19

Law of effect

if a response is followed by an annoying consequence, the animal will be less likely to emit the same response in the future; Thorndike

20

Positive reinforcement

probability that the desired response will be performed is increased by giving the organism something it wants whenever it makes the desired response; Skinner

21

Negative reinforcement

the probability that the desired response will be performed is increased by taking away or preventing something undesirable whenever the desired response is made; Skinner

22

behavior removes something undesirable

Escape

23

organism gets a warning that an aversive stimulus will soon occur, and the appropriate response completely avoids the aversive stimulus

Avoidance

24

Punishment

probability that a response will be made is decreased by giving the organism something undesirable whenever the response is made; Skinner

25

Extinction (operant conditioning)

behavior that used to bring reward no longer does so

26

Discriminative stimulus

stimulus condition that indicates that the organism’s behavior will have consequences

27

it takes longer to extinguish a response while receiving only occasional reinforcement

Partial reinforcement effect

28

organism receives reinforcement only after a fixed number of responses

Fixed-ratio reinforcement

29

receives reinforcement after a varying number of responses

Variable ratio reinforcement

30

reinforced on the first response after a fixed period of time has elapsed since the last reinforcement

Fixed-interval reinforcement