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Flashcards in Physiological Psych Deck (75)
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1

earliest theories that behavior, intellect, and even personality might be linked to brain anatomy; phrenology

Gall

2

Ablation (extirpation)

various parts of the brain are surgically removed, and the behavioral consequences are observed

3

-how mental processes help individuals adapt to their environments

Functionalism (James)

4

study of the organism as a whole

Dewey

5

behavioral deficits of people with brain damage

Broca

6

each sensory nerve is excited by only one kind of energy

Müller

7

first to measure the speed of a nerve impulse

Helmholtz

8

inferred the existence of synapses

Sherrington

9

transmit sensory information from receptors to the spinal cord and brain

Sensory (afferent) neurons

10

transmit motor information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles

Motor (efferent) neurons

11

found between other neurons; most numerous; linked to reflexive behavior

Interneurons

12

behavior that is crucial to survival

Reflexes

13

CNS

brain and spinal cord

14

PNS

nerve tissue fibers outside the brain and spinal cord

15

Somatic nervous system

sensory and motor neurons distributed throughout the skin and muscles

16

Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)

regulates heartbeat, respiration, digestion, and glandular secretions; independent of conscious control; Cannon

17

Antagonistic

act in opposition

18

conserve energy; resting and digesting

Parasympathetic nervous system

19

Acetylcholine

neurotransmitter responsible for parasympathetic responses

20

Sympathetic nervous system

fight or flight; adrenaline

21

where the brain meets the spinal cord; balance, motor coordination, breathing, digestion, and general arousal processes

Hindbrain

22

sensorimotor reflexes that also promote survival

Midbrain (mesencephalon)

23

complex perceptual, cognitive, and behavioral processes; emotion and memory

Forebrain

24

Limbic system

group of neural structures primarily associated with emotion and memory

25

outer covering of the cerebral hemispheres; language processing, problem solving, impulse control, long-term planning

Cerebral cortex

26

Phylogeny

evolutionary development

27

responsible for regulation vital functioning

Medulla oblongata

28

sensory and motor tracts between the cortex and the medulla

Pons

29

helps maintain posture and balance and coordinates body movements

Cerebellum

30

regulates arousal, alertness, and attention

Reticular formation