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Flashcards in Cognitive Psychology Deck (66)
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1

break consciousness down into its elements or specific mental structures

Structuralism

2

report on current conscious experiences

Introspection

3

Reaction time

measurement of time elapsed between a stimulus presentation and the subject’s response to it

4

Brain imaging

associate various cognitive processes to various parts of the brain

5

Eye movements

an “on-line” measure of information processing

6

memorize initial list, rememorize it, subtract the number of trials it took to rememoirze the list from the number it originally took, divide by the original number, and multiply by 100

Method of savings (Ebbinghaus)

7

putting new information into memory

Encoding

8

retaining the information over time

Storage

9

recovery of the stored material at a later time

Retrieval

10

Recall

independently reproducing the information that you have been previously exposed to

11

Recognition

realizing that a certain stimulus event is one you have seen or heard before

12

Recency effect

words presented at the end of the list are remembered best

13

Primacy effect

items presented first are also remembered fairly well

14

model suggests that recall involves the same mental process involved in recognition plus another process not required for recognition

Generation-recognition

15

Clustering

when asked to recall a list of words, people tend to recall words belonging to the same category

16

Several different memory systems exist and each system has a different function; memories enter the various systems in a specific order

Stage Theory of Memory

17

Sensory Memory

fleeting impressions of sensory stimuli
Iconic (visual) memory and Echoic (auditory) memory
Information does not last long

18

Whole-report procedure

subjects looked for a fraction of a second to recall as many items as they could

19

Partial-report procedure

subjects looked for a fraction of a second, but were asked to report only one row of letters (identified by a low, medium, or high pitched tone)

20

Short-Term Memory

link between rapidly changing sensory memory and the more lasting long-term memory; encoding based on phonology

21

constant rehearsing of information

Maintenance rehearsal

22

Long-Term Memory

permanent storehouse of experiences, knowledge, and skills; encoding based on meaning

23

organizing the material and associating it with information already in long-term memory

Elaborative rehearsal

24

remembering how things are done

Procedural memory

25

storage of explicit information

Declarative memory

26

Semantic memory

remembering general knowledge

27

Episodic memory

memories for particular events

28

Semantic priming

subject has to decide whether a stimulus is a word or a nonword; response time quicker if the two words were semantically related

29

time it takes a subject to respond

Response latency

30

Spreading activation model

semantic memory is organized into a map of interconnected concepts; key is the distance between concepts (Collins and Loftus)