diabetes Flashcards Preview

pharmacology > diabetes > Flashcards

Flashcards in diabetes Deck (26):
1

how are insulin and insulin analogue preparations administered?

SC or IV injection

2

What is an example of a short-acting insulin?

neutral/regular insulin

3

What are three examples of ultra short-acting insulins?

insulin aspart, glulisine and lispro

4

What is an example of an intermediate-acting insulin?

protamine insuline (isophane)

5

What is an example of a long-acting insulin?

insulin glargine, detemir

6

MOA of short acting insulin?

hexamer insulin molecule is broken up before absorption

7

MOA of ultra-short acting insulin?

aa sequence of insulin is altered, no hexamer formation; monomers and dimers are ready for absorption from injection site.

8

MOA of long-acting insulin?

peak less basal levels: binds to albumin, slowly dissociates

9

ADRs of insulin and insulin analogues

hypoglycaemia, lipodystrophy, localised allergic reactions, insulin antibody formation

10

What does SC insulin infusion do to metabolic control?

improves

11

MOA of sulphonylureas

cause depolarisation of pancreatic beta-cells by closing of KATP channels

12

Do sulphonylureas undergo hepatic metabolism?

yes

13

ADR of sulphonylureas?

hypoglycaemia, stimulate appetite - leading to weight gain

14

MOA of metformin

activates AMPK causing increase of glucose uptake and decreased gluconeogenesis

15

advantages of metformin

euglycaemic rather than hypoglycaemic, excreted unchanged in the urine

16

ADRs of metformin

GI upset, lactic acidosis (rare), interferes with B12 absorption

17

MOA of glitazones

bind to and stimulate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma), PPAR binds to DNA to promote insulin signalling

18

ADRs of glitazones

hepatic impairment, fluid retention, weight gain

19

MOA alpha-glucosidase inhibitors

competes with di and polysaccharides in the gut for binding to carbohydrate enzyme

20

ADRs of alpha-glucosidase inhibitors

flatulence, diarrhoea, abdominal discomforts

21

MOA of incretin-enhancing agents (are injected)

increase insulin sensitivity of pancreatic beta cells, reduce food intake, increase glucose uptake, decrease nutrient reabsorption

22

ADRs of incretin-enhancing agents?

hypoglycaemia, GI upset, pancreatitis (rare)

23

MOA of DDP-4 (dipeptidylpeptidase-4) inhibitors?

potentiate endogenous incretin action by preventing their breakdown

24

ADRs of DDP-4

GI upset, headache, increased UTI, nasopharyngitis

25

MOA of Na+-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor

inhibit Na+-glucose transporter, increase glucose excretion from kidneys by preventing PCT reabsorption

26

ADRs of Na+-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor

genital infection, polyuria, dysuria, increased haemocrit, increased risk of hypoglycaemia, UTI, volume depletion