Flashcards in Differential Reinforcement Deck (33):
Differential reinforcement procedures involve...
applying reinforcement and extinction to increase desirable and decrease undesirable behaviour
Name the three types of differential reinforcement
1. Diff reinf't of alternative behaviour (DRA)
2. Diff renif't of other behaviours (DRO)
3. Diff reinf't of low rates of behaviour (DRL)
Combines contingent reinf't of appropriate behaviour and extinguishing of undesirable one
DRA tips: Determine the ____ of behaviour so you know what reinforcer to use
DRA tips: Reinforce...
each instance of alternative behaviour immediately & consistently
DRA tips: Ensure alternative behaviour is...
as (or easier) easy to complete than problem behaviour
DRA tips: Clearly define...
alternative and undesirable behaviours
DRA tips: A good choice of reinforcer would be...
whatever is currently maintaining problem behaviour
DRA tips: Once alternative behaviour occurs consistently...
start thinning reinf't schedule
DRA tips: Program for...
Variations: Can also be used with ____ ____ (DNRA)
When using DRA, remember the person may not...
know how to perform desirable behaviour, in which case teaching (using shaping) may be necessary
Variations: Differential reinf't of ____ ____ (DRI)
incompatible behaviour (can't occur at same time as problem behaviour)
Variations: Differential reinf't of ____ (DRC)
Communication (teaches individual to make communication that is functionally equivalent)
DRC is also known as...
Functional communication training
Contingent reinforcement of absence of undesirable behaviour. Uses extinction if problem behaviour occurs
What does IRT refer to?
Inter-response time. The time between the end of one response and onset of another
DRO tips: Identify the...
function of the behaviour so you know what reinforcer to use
DRO tips: Consider ____ ____ ____ when setting the initial DRO interval
inter-response time (IRT)
DRO is a good strategy to use if the individual is unlikely... Also good if...
to replace his/her behaviour with another problem behaviour; an alternative behaviour would be difficult for the person to do
Schedule thinning is achieved within DRO by
gradually increasing the length of intervals
If behaviour occurs frequently, intervals must be
What are the two types of DRO?
Whole interval (reinforcer = absent for whole) or momentary (reinforcer = absent at end)
When would momentary DRO be used?
In behaviour maintenance
Procedure in which behaviour is reinforced if it occurs at a rate that is less than a set criteria
When is DRL used?
When the behaviour is appropriate and desirable but occurs too much
What are the two types of DRL?
Full session DRL; Spaced-responding DRL
What is full session DRL?
Behaviour is reinforced if it occurs less than the specified amount of times during a session
What is spaced-responding DRL?
Behaviour is reinforced if an interval of time passes between responses
In DRL, when is the reinforcer delivered?
Immediately after the behaviour occurs (provided criteria is obeyed)
DRL tips: Identify the _____ __ _____ to know what reinforcer to use
function of behaviour
How can you help the client remember the DRL schedule?
Provide stimuli such as stopwatches, response markers etc.