Flashcards in Experimental Designs Deck (30):
What are the two main types of experimental designs?
Single case/subject designs
Large groups designs can be ____ subjects or ____ subjects
Subjects randomly assigned to experimental/control groups to determine effect of I.V.
Involves repeated measures. Pts sit all conditions and and all results are compared across conditions
Single case designs are ____-subject designs. The participant acts as his/her own ____ group
Give one advantage of using group designs
Less likelihood of extraneous variables affecting the D.V. (e.g. Individual differences)
Give one advantage of using single-subject designs
Tells us more about individual behaviour (where groups designs only show us group averages)
Behaviour is an ____ phenomenon. What is true of 1 person...
Individual; may not be true for another
Behaviour is a ____ phenomenon. It is not static, which is why ____ ____ are so important
Continuous; repeated measures
A limitation of single case designs is that
Studies involving small groups of people will not have much external validity (problematic from a research perspective)
____ is key to demonstrating external validity in single case designs
What are phase lines?
The lines drawn on graphs to separate baselines and interventions
What are phase labels?
Labels explaining what each part of the graph indicated e.g. Baseline, treatment 1
Units of time are located on the ____
The percentage/frequency of behaviour is shown on the ____
Before implementing treatment baseline data should be
Baseline data is considered stable if ____ - ____% of the data points fall within ____% of the mean
Design that shows the effects of the I.V. by systematically removing it and returning to baseline
When should the ABAB design be used?
When behaviours are likely to reverse and aren't dangerous to others
Design that staggers the I.V. across people, settings and behaviours
Using the multiple baseline design requires taking
At least two baselines for different people or behaviours or settings
When should multiple baselines be used?
When multiple, independent elements exist within the experimental settings
When reversal is dangerous/impossible
Design that rapidly and randomly switches between I.V.s, allowing simultaneous comparison of treatments to baseline.
In alternating treatments designs the I.V.s are ____ assigned to days, times etc.
When should alternating treatments design be used?
When you have >1 intervention to compare
Give on advantage to using alternating treatments design
Allows you to choose best treatment out of choice
Alternating treatments design requires that treatments are ____ of one another
Independent (treatments should have no carry-over effects)
A variation of the reversal design that compares two or more I.V.s by individually comparing them to baseline
ABAC... (With more I.V.s can proceed to D, E, F etc.)
In ABAC designs, A = ____, B = ____, C = ____
Baseline; I.V. 1; I.V. 2