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Flashcards in Validity Deck (28):
0

What is meant by validity?

How well a test measures what it is purported to measure

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Face validity:

How well the measure appears to be assessing the intended construct

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Construct validity:

Whether the measure is actually measuring the variable it intended to measure. What aspect of the intervention was responsible for change

3

Whether the measure is actually measuring the variable it intended to measure. What aspect of the intervention was responsible for change

Construct validity

4

How well the measure appears to be assessing the intended construct

Face validity

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Construct validity is not about methodology alone, it is about ____ the I.V.

Understanding

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Name three common threats to construct validity

1. Attention

2. Experimenter expectancies

3. Cues of the experimental situation

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Threats to construct validity: Attention

The experiment or could have given one group of participants more attention than the other.

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Threats to construct validity: experimenter expectancies

Experimenter's beliefs/actions can influence N's behaviour (similar to demand characteristics)

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Threats to construct validity: cues of the experimental situation

Other factors e.g. If info is leaked re: the experiment

10

Internal validity:

To what extent you can confidently say that A caused B, and not extraneous variables

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To what extent you can confidently say that A caused B, and not extraneous variables

Internal validity

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Common threats to internal validity: history

Effects of events common to subjects in their everyday lives

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Common threats to internal validity: Maturation

Growing older/wiser/tired/bored

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Common threats to internal validity: Testing

Any change attributed to the effects of repeated assessment

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Common threats to internal validity: instrumentation

Changes in the measuring instrument or procedure

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Common threats to internal validity: attrition

Any change in overall scores due to loss of subjects

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Common threats to internal validity: selection biases

Any differences between groups due to differential selection of pulsation

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Common threats to internal validity: diffusion of treatment

The control group inadvertently receives part of the treatment given to experimental group

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External validity:

The extent to which findings can be generalised to other populations, places or circumstances

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Common threats to external validity: generality across time

Will the effects be continued following discontinuation of the treatment

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Common threats to external validity: reactivity assessment

The degree to which subjects are aware their behaviour is being assessed and how this influences performance.

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What is reliability?

The degree to which an assessment tool produces the same results consistently

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Test retest reliability:

A measure of reliability obtained by administering the same test twice over a period of time to a group of individuals

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Inter-rather reliability

The degree to which judges/raters agree on what they've observed

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Interobserver agreement data ensures differences in behaviour are not due to... (3 answers)

Changing definition, observer bias, measurement error

26

The formula for calculating IOR for frequency, rate, duration or latency is

Smallest score / largest score x 100%

27

The formula for calculating IOR for time sampling is

Number of agreements/total intervals x 100%