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Flashcards in Disease Deck (79):
1

What origin does HIV have?

Zoonotic

2

What are prions?

Infectious proteins

2

How many bats have been killed by white-nosed syndrom?

6-7 million

3

Where did Nipah emerge?

Malaysia, Bangladesh, India

4

What is encephalitis?

An infection of the brain and nervous system

4

In which animals is canine distemper virus a problem?

Dogs, serengeti lions, hunting dogs, black-footed ferrets

5

Which mammals does rabies affect?

Bats, primates, cattle, carnivores, dogs and cats

5

What happens with septicaemic plague?

Reduced clotting ability, uncontrolled bleeding.

6

How does vaccination of adult badgers affect cubs?

Cubs from social adults who had been vaccinated were protected from TB

8

Why is it easier to catch disease from animals now?

Prolonged assoication

9

Where is hantavirus more of an issue?

In the developed world

10

What is henipah?

Group of viruses

10

What type of virus is canine distemper virus?

RNA virus

11

Where is bubonic plague most prevalent?

Africa and developing world

12

How have fisherman caught rabies?

Exposure through fly fishing. Bats fly over the water and grabs the fly, fisherman has to get the bats off

13

What is a bacterial disease which affects humans?

Plague

13

How long did the badger cull trial last?

10 years

13

How effective were the measures of reducing badger-cattle contact?

100%

14

Which 2 viruses are in henipah?

Nipah, Hendra

15

How is trichinella spiralis passed on?

Uncooked pork and bears

17

Where are human deaths of rabies most prevalent?

Developing world

18

What are the late stage symptoms of rabies?

Acute pain, uncontrolled movements, aggressive behaviour, profuse salivation, hydrophobia

18

How is bovine TB spatially distributed?

Limited spread between groups. Infection is patchy and conserved through time

18

Which animals does chronic wasting disease effect?

Wild ungulates

20

What are spill over cases?

Main self-sustaining reservoir of infection is the animal and then the human acquires the infection

21

When was rabies discovered?

4,000 years ago

21

What does badger vaccine study show?

Does not prevent infection, reduces severity and progression

22

What does the bubonic plague affect?

Lymphatic system

23

Where did SARS emerge?

East Asia

24

How many humans death have there been because of rabies?

55,000

25

How much did the Krebs Trial badger cull cost?

£50 million

26

Where is the virus found?

Saliva

26

What plague occurs in wildlife?

Sylvatic plague

28

Who revolutionised the protection of milk?

Louis Pasture, Calmette and Guerin

28

What did the badger culling trial show?

Number of cattle TB incidents lower in areas which badgers were culled proactively.

28

Which animals cause Nipah?

Bats

29

What happens with bubonic plague?

Swelling lymph nodes. Die from blood clots

30

What is the name for diseases caused by animals?

Zoonoses

31

Where HIV come from?

Non-human primates, chimps

33

What is the relationship between badger density and TB?

No relationship with density of the population and prevalence of the disease

34

Which animals transfer hantavirus to humans?

Rodents

35

How did bats cause Nipah?

Roost near pig farms, transfer infection

36

How is chronic wasting disease spread?

Via nose to nose contact or contact with excrement

37

How are people working with bats protected against rabies?

Three IM injections pre-exposure. Post-exposure treatment

38

What is an example of a prion disease?

Mad cow disease

39

How is badger-cattle contact reduced?

Exclusion measures, gates/fences

41

What is the economic problems caused by bovine TB?

Number of cattle being culled and amount of tests has increased

42

What is chronic wasting disease caused by?

Transmissible prion disease

44

What does the results of the badger culling trials show?

Positive effects in the areas culled counteracted the negative effects in the areas outside

45

How is devil facial tumour disease spread?

Through biting

46

What does rabies cause?

Acute encephalitis

47

What are the 3 types of culling involved in the Krebs trial?

Reactive culling, proactive culling, survey only

48

Which animals does white-nosed syndrome effect?

Bats

49

Which animals caused hendra to emerge?

Horses

50

What happens because of bovine tuberculosis?

Swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck as a result of consuming infected milk

52

What did Calmette and Guerin create?

TB vaccine

53

What is the final result of rabies?

Coma and death

54

What is devil facial tumour disease?

Transmissible cancer

55

What does ebola cause?

Systemic organ failure

57

What are examples of emerging infectious diseases?

SARS, HIV, Influenza, Ebola, Henipah, Hantavirus

58

What is unique about the DNA of tumours in devil facial tumour disease?

The DNA is not the same as the infected DNA. Tumours are passed between them

59

How is CDV spread?

Feral domesticated dogs going into wild areas and spreading

61

How is septicaemic plague caused?

Bacteria produce toxins

62

What is an example of influenza?

Swine flu

63

What percentage of emerging infectious disease is caused by contact with wildlife?

71.8%

64

How is the disease contracted?

From bite

65

Where did ebola outbreak?

Western Africa

67

What are the different types of pathogens?

Virus, bacteria, fungi, parasites, prions, infectious cell lines

68

What are the hosts of toxoplasma gondii?

Felid host from cats oocysts in faeces

69

Which species is sylvatic plague a threat to?

Black footed ferrets

70

What happened in the surrounding areas of where the badgers were culled?

More incidents of TB.

72

How is the plague transferred to humans?

Rat flea

73

What happens with a prion disease?

Neurodegenerative

74

What is reactive culling?

Badgers culled on and around farms following TB outbreak

75

What is proactive culling?

As many badgers as possible culled and numbers kept low

76

What are wildlife diseases?

Canine distemper virus, chronic wasting disease, white-nosed syndrome, devil facial tumour disease

77

What animals are the primary reservoir for ebola?

Bats

78

How are mammals vaccinated?

Aerial vaccine -put into baits and broadcast out of helicopters

79

How do animals transfer disease to humans?

Susceptibility, environmental conditions, pathogen viability, transmission