What origin does HIV have?
What are prions?
How many bats have been killed by white-nosed syndrom?
Where did Nipah emerge?
Malaysia, Bangladesh, India
What is encephalitis?
An infection of the brain and nervous system
In which animals is canine distemper virus a problem?
Dogs, serengeti lions, hunting dogs, black-footed ferrets
Which mammals does rabies affect?
Bats, primates, cattle, carnivores, dogs and cats
What happens with septicaemic plague?
Reduced clotting ability, uncontrolled bleeding.
How does vaccination of adult badgers affect cubs?
Cubs from social adults who had been vaccinated were protected from TB
Why is it easier to catch disease from animals now?
Where is hantavirus more of an issue?
In the developed world
What is henipah?
Group of viruses
What type of virus is canine distemper virus?
Where is bubonic plague most prevalent?
Africa and developing world
How have fisherman caught rabies?
Exposure through fly fishing. Bats fly over the water and grabs the fly, fisherman has to get the bats off
What is a bacterial disease which affects humans?
How long did the badger cull trial last?
How effective were the measures of reducing badger-cattle contact?
Which 2 viruses are in henipah?
How is trichinella spiralis passed on?
Uncooked pork and bears
Where are human deaths of rabies most prevalent?
What are the late stage symptoms of rabies?
Acute pain, uncontrolled movements, aggressive behaviour, profuse salivation, hydrophobia
How is bovine TB spatially distributed?
Limited spread between groups. Infection is patchy and conserved through time
Which animals does chronic wasting disease effect?
What are spill over cases?
Main self-sustaining reservoir of infection is the animal and then the human acquires the infection
When was rabies discovered?
4,000 years ago
What does badger vaccine study show?
Does not prevent infection, reduces severity and progression
What does the bubonic plague affect?
Where did SARS emerge?
How many humans death have there been because of rabies?
How much did the Krebs Trial badger cull cost?
Where is the virus found?
What plague occurs in wildlife?
Who revolutionised the protection of milk?
Louis Pasture, Calmette and Guerin
What did the badger culling trial show?
Number of cattle TB incidents lower in areas which badgers were culled proactively.
Which animals cause Nipah?
What happens with bubonic plague?
Swelling lymph nodes. Die from blood clots
What is the name for diseases caused by animals?
Where HIV come from?
Non-human primates, chimps
What is the relationship between badger density and TB?
No relationship with density of the population and prevalence of the disease
Which animals transfer hantavirus to humans?
How did bats cause Nipah?
Roost near pig farms, transfer infection
How is chronic wasting disease spread?
Via nose to nose contact or contact with excrement
How are people working with bats protected against rabies?
Three IM injections pre-exposure. Post-exposure treatment
What is an example of a prion disease?
Mad cow disease
How is badger-cattle contact reduced?
Exclusion measures, gates/fences
What is the economic problems caused by bovine TB?
Number of cattle being culled and amount of tests has increased
What is chronic wasting disease caused by?
Transmissible prion disease
What does the results of the badger culling trials show?
Positive effects in the areas culled counteracted the negative effects in the areas outside
How is devil facial tumour disease spread?
What does rabies cause?
What are the 3 types of culling involved in the Krebs trial?
Reactive culling, proactive culling, survey only
Which animals does white-nosed syndrome effect?
Which animals caused hendra to emerge?
What happens because of bovine tuberculosis?
Swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck as a result of consuming infected milk
What did Calmette and Guerin create?
What is the final result of rabies?
Coma and death
What is devil facial tumour disease?
What does ebola cause?
Systemic organ failure
What are examples of emerging infectious diseases?
SARS, HIV, Influenza, Ebola, Henipah, Hantavirus
What is unique about the DNA of tumours in devil facial tumour disease?
The DNA is not the same as the infected DNA. Tumours are passed between them
How is CDV spread?
Feral domesticated dogs going into wild areas and spreading
How is septicaemic plague caused?
Bacteria produce toxins
What is an example of influenza?
What percentage of emerging infectious disease is caused by contact with wildlife?
How is the disease contracted?
Where did ebola outbreak?
What are the different types of pathogens?
Virus, bacteria, fungi, parasites, prions, infectious cell lines
What are the hosts of toxoplasma gondii?
Felid host from cats oocysts in faeces
Which species is sylvatic plague a threat to?
Black footed ferrets
What happened in the surrounding areas of where the badgers were culled?
More incidents of TB.
How is the plague transferred to humans?
What happens with a prion disease?
What is reactive culling?
Badgers culled on and around farms following TB outbreak
What is proactive culling?
As many badgers as possible culled and numbers kept low
What are wildlife diseases?
Canine distemper virus, chronic wasting disease, white-nosed syndrome, devil facial tumour disease
What animals are the primary reservoir for ebola?
How are mammals vaccinated?
Aerial vaccine -put into baits and broadcast out of helicopters
How do animals transfer disease to humans?
Susceptibility, environmental conditions, pathogen viability, transmission