Domestication Flashcards Preview

Biology Of Mammals > Domestication > Flashcards

Flashcards in Domestication Deck (70):
1

When were camelids domesticated?

7,000 - 4,000 years ago

1

What is pup adoption?

People take in pups of those which survived flexible diets and were able to survive in a human society

2

What is the common ancestor of domesticated cattle?

Aurochs(en)

3

Why haven't we domesticated more mammals?

Relatively few species, artificial selection

3

Why do domesticated mammals require an adaptable diet?

Need to be able to eat anything they can get hold of

3

Why is domestication a slow process?

Selective breeding, variation within species

3

Why were hamsters, mice and rats domesticated?

Pets, biomedical research

4

Where does domestication still take place?

Laboratory, zoo, pet animals

5

What were guinea pigs domesticated for?

Food

6

What were horses first used for?

Meat

7

Why is captive breeding important for domestication?

Animals need to not be highly strung and do not need to be coaxed into reproduction

8

What is an issue caused by long duration of close contact?

Transfer of infection between animals and humans. Emergence of zoonotic disease

9

How did agricultural development lead to the domestication of cats?

Cereal harvesting lead to more pest (mice and rats). Cats as pest contol

10

When were herding animals domesticated for meat?

11,000 - 9,000 years ago

10

Why were cats domesticated?

Based on tolerance not use

11

What is evidence for dog domestication?

Archaeological record, mtDNA studies, Ancient DNA

12

How do dogs help with hunting and searching?

Distance, scent, underground, retrieval

13

What is a problem with the wild states of domesticated cats?

Can rapidly revert back into their wild state and become feral.

13

What is the ancestor of domesticated cattle?

Wild boar

14

What does ancient DNA show about dog domestication?

New world dogs derived from old world wolves.

15

Why were dogs domesticated?

Wolves associated with humans at a number of locations across the world

16

Why are mammals called walking larders?

Heard animals are conveniently sized to feed a family group

17

What is now common in domesticated dogs which is not shown in wolves?

Starchy diet

17

What are cattle domesticated for?

Meat, milk, hides, traction, transportation, wealth, sport

18

What is unique about the wild horses in America?

Horses became extinct in North America. Those in America are descendants of domesticated horses from Europe

19

What are the main reasons dogs breeds have been selected?

Hunting and searching, guarding, companionship

20

Why are cats not great for domestication?

Solitary, Hypercarnivorous, Lack of social hierarchies

22

What are the other benefits of mammal domestication?

Raw materials, transpirations, traction, fertilisation, protection, improved hunting, herding, fighting, companionship

23

Why were donkeys domesticated?

Transport of cargo

24

How does archaeological records show dog domestication?

Co-burials alongside humans, distinct skull morphology

25

Who did domestic cats arise from?

Near Eastern Wildcats

26

Why were ferrets domesticated?

Hunting

27

How are mammals domesticated for raw materials?

Clothing, tools, shelter

28

How has domestication changed?

Unconscious as early stages, then methodical

29

Why is social hierarchical important for domestication?

Traits of living in a complex network allow them to function in a human society

30

What traits mean that cats are less suited to domestication?

Hunting instincts, independence

32

In which species is domestication dramatic?

Dogs and cats

33

Why are arctic foxes and mink suitable for domestication for fur farms?

Flexible diet, fast growth, breed in captivity

35

What are the primary benefits of domestication?

Reliable food source, Walking larders

37

How is domestication methodical?

Artificial selection of desirable traits and selective breeding.

38

What is the secondary products revolution?

Only recently discovered use of animals for other things

39

What is an issue with domestication of ferrets in relation to polecats

Back-crossing and hybridisation

40

Where did cats co-occur?

In agriculture

41

When were guinea pigs domesticated?

7,000 years ago

42

What is the selection for in the domestication of animals for fur farms?

Selection on pelage (fur) traits.

42

What were rabbits domesticated for?

Ranching

44

What are nomadic hunters?

Highly mobile and dependent on hunting temporary and patchy resources

45

What was sedentary agrarian societies facilitated by?

The use of animals

46

Which type of elephants are domesticated?

Asian

47

When did cat-human co-burials arise

9,500

49

What is seen in domesticated cats body plan?

Still conservative body plan similar to that of the wild cats

50

When was the initial domestication?

> 20,000 - 14,000 years ago

51

What are the common traits for domestication?

Shortened rostrum, floppy ears, upright/curved tails, smaller size, piebald colouration, diminished horns, fatness, smaller brains, extended maturity

52

How did animals facilitate the sedentary agrarian societies?

Transportation, trade, larger populations

53

What is the secondary product of horses?

Milk, hunting, traction, transportation, warfare

55

Who did dogs domesticated from?

Descended from wolves as a whole arctic species

56

In which species is domestication subtle?

Llama and wild camelid

57

What were elephants domesticated for?

Logging, transport, recreation, warfare

58

How are mammals domesticated for transportation?

People directly, cargos, trade

59

What is an issue in relation to escapes in domestication?

Feral escapes leads to conservation impacts of invasive, non-native species

60

When were pigs domesticated?

9,000 years ago

61

What were sheep originally domesticated for?

Meat, milk and hides

62

Why is growth rate important for domestication?

Fast growth rates so they can be used for food

63

What are the most recent rodents to be domesticated?

Hamsters, mice and rats

65

What is hypercarnivorous?

Only eat meats - not a flexible diet

66

What were goats domesticated for?

Large scale transportation

67

How was wool first taken from sheep?

Plucked

68

How can ferrets help hunting?

Ferrets put down the warren to drive rabbits out

69

How were wolves domesticated?

Able to display and understand signals of submissive behaviour

70

What are the requirements for domestication?

Adaptable diet, growth rate, captive breeding, less aggressive, even temperament, social hierarchical