When were camelids domesticated?
7,000 - 4,000 years ago
What is pup adoption?
People take in pups of those which survived flexible diets and were able to survive in a human society
What is the common ancestor of domesticated cattle?
Why haven't we domesticated more mammals?
Relatively few species, artificial selection
Why do domesticated mammals require an adaptable diet?
Need to be able to eat anything they can get hold of
Why is domestication a slow process?
Selective breeding, variation within species
Why were hamsters, mice and rats domesticated?
Pets, biomedical research
Where does domestication still take place?
Laboratory, zoo, pet animals
What were guinea pigs domesticated for?
What were horses first used for?
Why is captive breeding important for domestication?
Animals need to not be highly strung and do not need to be coaxed into reproduction
What is an issue caused by long duration of close contact?
Transfer of infection between animals and humans. Emergence of zoonotic disease
How did agricultural development lead to the domestication of cats?
Cereal harvesting lead to more pest (mice and rats). Cats as pest contol
When were herding animals domesticated for meat?
11,000 - 9,000 years ago
Why were cats domesticated?
Based on tolerance not use
What is evidence for dog domestication?
Archaeological record, mtDNA studies, Ancient DNA
How do dogs help with hunting and searching?
Distance, scent, underground, retrieval
What is a problem with the wild states of domesticated cats?
Can rapidly revert back into their wild state and become feral.
What is the ancestor of domesticated cattle?
What does ancient DNA show about dog domestication?
New world dogs derived from old world wolves.
Why were dogs domesticated?
Wolves associated with humans at a number of locations across the world
Why are mammals called walking larders?
Heard animals are conveniently sized to feed a family group
What is now common in domesticated dogs which is not shown in wolves?
What are cattle domesticated for?
Meat, milk, hides, traction, transportation, wealth, sport
What is unique about the wild horses in America?
Horses became extinct in North America. Those in America are descendants of domesticated horses from Europe
What are the main reasons dogs breeds have been selected?
Hunting and searching, guarding, companionship
Why are cats not great for domestication?
Solitary, Hypercarnivorous, Lack of social hierarchies
What are the other benefits of mammal domestication?
Raw materials, transpirations, traction, fertilisation, protection, improved hunting, herding, fighting, companionship
Why were donkeys domesticated?
Transport of cargo
How does archaeological records show dog domestication?
Co-burials alongside humans, distinct skull morphology
Who did domestic cats arise from?
Near Eastern Wildcats
Why were ferrets domesticated?
How are mammals domesticated for raw materials?
Clothing, tools, shelter
How has domestication changed?
Unconscious as early stages, then methodical
Why is social hierarchical important for domestication?
Traits of living in a complex network allow them to function in a human society
What traits mean that cats are less suited to domestication?
Hunting instincts, independence
In which species is domestication dramatic?
Dogs and cats
Why are arctic foxes and mink suitable for domestication for fur farms?
Flexible diet, fast growth, breed in captivity
What are the primary benefits of domestication?
Reliable food source, Walking larders
How is domestication methodical?
Artificial selection of desirable traits and selective breeding.
What is the secondary products revolution?
Only recently discovered use of animals for other things
What is an issue with domestication of ferrets in relation to polecats
Back-crossing and hybridisation
Where did cats co-occur?
When were guinea pigs domesticated?
7,000 years ago
What is the selection for in the domestication of animals for fur farms?
Selection on pelage (fur) traits.
What were rabbits domesticated for?
What are nomadic hunters?
Highly mobile and dependent on hunting temporary and patchy resources
What was sedentary agrarian societies facilitated by?
The use of animals
Which type of elephants are domesticated?
When did cat-human co-burials arise
What is seen in domesticated cats body plan?
Still conservative body plan similar to that of the wild cats
When was the initial domestication?
> 20,000 - 14,000 years ago
What are the common traits for domestication?
Shortened rostrum, floppy ears, upright/curved tails, smaller size, piebald colouration, diminished horns, fatness, smaller brains, extended maturity
How did animals facilitate the sedentary agrarian societies?
Transportation, trade, larger populations
What is the secondary product of horses?
Milk, hunting, traction, transportation, warfare
Who did dogs domesticated from?
Descended from wolves as a whole arctic species
In which species is domestication subtle?
Llama and wild camelid
What were elephants domesticated for?
Logging, transport, recreation, warfare
How are mammals domesticated for transportation?
People directly, cargos, trade
What is an issue in relation to escapes in domestication?
Feral escapes leads to conservation impacts of invasive, non-native species
When were pigs domesticated?
9,000 years ago
What were sheep originally domesticated for?
Meat, milk and hides
Why is growth rate important for domestication?
Fast growth rates so they can be used for food
What are the most recent rodents to be domesticated?
Hamsters, mice and rats
What is hypercarnivorous?
Only eat meats - not a flexible diet
What were goats domesticated for?
Large scale transportation
How was wool first taken from sheep?
How can ferrets help hunting?
Ferrets put down the warren to drive rabbits out
How were wolves domesticated?
Able to display and understand signals of submissive behaviour
What are the requirements for domestication?
Adaptable diet, growth rate, captive breeding, less aggressive, even temperament, social hierarchical