Locomotion Flashcards Preview

Biology Of Mammals > Locomotion > Flashcards

Flashcards in Locomotion Deck (42):
1

How are mammals with brachiation locomotion adapted?

Long arms, stout pectoral girdle, anchored clavicle, opposable digits, rotary cup joints.

2

How are mammals adapted to ricocheting locomotion?

Bipedal, enlarged hind limps, elastic tendons, reduced forelimbs

2

Which form of locomotion is most energetically efficient?

Flight

3

Why has knuckle walking evolved?

Manu/pes adapted for other purposes

3

Which is richocheting?

Bouncing off things

3

What is a sifaka?

Large lemur

4

What is saltatorial locomotion?

Leaping

5

What is the cannon bone?

Fusion of 3rd and 4th metapodial

5

Why is a cheetah incapable of long sustained pursuits?

Extreme amount of energy burnt leads to rapid physiological constraints - inability to remove heat

6

What is cursorial?

Adapted for running

7

What is ambulatory?

Adapted to walking

8

What adaptations to senses do fossorial mammals have?

Vestigial vision, receptors in the snout, vibrissae (whiskers) on tail, body or legs

8

What type of dentition do fossorial mammals have?

Teeth use as digging tool. Large incisors are external to the lips, can dig with their teeth

8

What shape are bats wings?

Cambered (asymmetry between top and bottom surfaces)

8

What type of wings do bats which fly rapidly have?

Long, narrow, high-aspect ratio wings

9

What is fossorial locomotion?

Animalls with adaptations for digging

11

What is plantigrade posture?

Palsm/sole in contact with the floor. Metatarsals, phalanges parallel to the ground

12

Why do vampire bats shown jumping locomotion sometimes?

Liquid diet is heavy. Jumping helps them get off the ground

12

How does the patagium help gliding?

Acts as an airfoil by being kept under tension, limb adjustment

14

How is a cheetah adapted?

Lightweight head and body, extensible spine, long legs, tail, semi-retractable claws, efficient respiration

15

What is a sifaka locomotion?

Largely arboreal, ricocheting terrestrial locomotion

17

What adaptations does a mammal have for cursorial locomotion?

Longer limbs, muscles and levers in place, reduced distal mass, proximate muscle mass, extended ligaments

19

What is mediportal?

Adapted for slow movement with some characteristics of quick when needed

20

Which mammals have converged for gliding locomotion?

3 possum families, colugos, flying squirrels.

22

Which species are adapted for knuckle walking?

Chimps, anteaters, pangolins, platypus

23

What is unguligrade posture?

Elevated phalanges, walking on last part of the digit

24

How are burrowing mammals adapted?

Short limbs, powerful musculature, spade like manus, enlarged humerus, adapted senses and dentition

26

What are the 4 different types of wings?

Plagiopatagium, chiropatagium, uropatagium, propatagium

27

How can a flying squirrel and a sugar glider be seen apart?

Location of testes

29

What are the 3 types of posture?

Plantigrade. Digitigrade. Unguligrade

30

How is propulsion generated?

Joints, muscles, ligaments and tendons act to form levers.

30

What is the patagium?

Membrane or fold of skin between forelimbs and hindlimbs on each side

31

How can a tail help locomotion?

Balance counterweight. Can be prehensile

32

How is a bats skeleton adapted for flight?

Keeled sternum, stout clavicle, fused axial, elongated radial, elongated metacarpals

34

What is graviportal?

Adapted for moving slowly due to high body weight

35

How are sloths adapted to their method of locomotion?

Hands and feed grip, swinging momentum, reduced cervical vertebrae-head mobility.

36

What is digitigrade posture?

Elevated metatarsals, phalanges in contact. Reduced to 4 digits

37

What are the 4 requirements need to sustain locomotion?

Support. Propulsion. Manoeuvrability. Endurance

39

How are mammals with arboreal locomotion adapted?

Holdfasts, grasping manus, pes, claws, pads for friction

40

How do bat wings cause flight?

Provide lift and thrust, thin aerofoil shape

41

What is subterranean locomotion?

Animals which live underground their entire life

42

How is a kangaroo adapted for its type of locomotion?

Posterior centre of gravity, enlarge pelvic muscles, lengthy tendons, extended tibia, enlarged pes, muscular tail