How are mammals with brachiation locomotion adapted?
Long arms, stout pectoral girdle, anchored clavicle, opposable digits, rotary cup joints.
How are mammals adapted to ricocheting locomotion?
Bipedal, enlarged hind limps, elastic tendons, reduced forelimbs
Which form of locomotion is most energetically efficient?
Why has knuckle walking evolved?
Manu/pes adapted for other purposes
Which is richocheting?
Bouncing off things
What is a sifaka?
What is saltatorial locomotion?
What is the cannon bone?
Fusion of 3rd and 4th metapodial
Why is a cheetah incapable of long sustained pursuits?
Extreme amount of energy burnt leads to rapid physiological constraints - inability to remove heat
What is cursorial?
Adapted for running
What is ambulatory?
Adapted to walking
What adaptations to senses do fossorial mammals have?
Vestigial vision, receptors in the snout, vibrissae (whiskers) on tail, body or legs
What type of dentition do fossorial mammals have?
Teeth use as digging tool. Large incisors are external to the lips, can dig with their teeth
What shape are bats wings?
Cambered (asymmetry between top and bottom surfaces)
What type of wings do bats which fly rapidly have?
Long, narrow, high-aspect ratio wings
What is fossorial locomotion?
Animalls with adaptations for digging
What is plantigrade posture?
Palsm/sole in contact with the floor. Metatarsals, phalanges parallel to the ground
Why do vampire bats shown jumping locomotion sometimes?
Liquid diet is heavy. Jumping helps them get off the ground
How does the patagium help gliding?
Acts as an airfoil by being kept under tension, limb adjustment
How is a cheetah adapted?
Lightweight head and body, extensible spine, long legs, tail, semi-retractable claws, efficient respiration
What is a sifaka locomotion?
Largely arboreal, ricocheting terrestrial locomotion
What adaptations does a mammal have for cursorial locomotion?
Longer limbs, muscles and levers in place, reduced distal mass, proximate muscle mass, extended ligaments
What is mediportal?
Adapted for slow movement with some characteristics of quick when needed
Which mammals have converged for gliding locomotion?
3 possum families, colugos, flying squirrels.
Which species are adapted for knuckle walking?
Chimps, anteaters, pangolins, platypus
What is unguligrade posture?
Elevated phalanges, walking on last part of the digit
How are burrowing mammals adapted?
Short limbs, powerful musculature, spade like manus, enlarged humerus, adapted senses and dentition
What are the 4 different types of wings?
Plagiopatagium, chiropatagium, uropatagium, propatagium
How can a flying squirrel and a sugar glider be seen apart?
Location of testes
What are the 3 types of posture?
Plantigrade. Digitigrade. Unguligrade
How is propulsion generated?
Joints, muscles, ligaments and tendons act to form levers.
What is the patagium?
Membrane or fold of skin between forelimbs and hindlimbs on each side
How can a tail help locomotion?
Balance counterweight. Can be prehensile
How is a bats skeleton adapted for flight?
Keeled sternum, stout clavicle, fused axial, elongated radial, elongated metacarpals
What is graviportal?
Adapted for moving slowly due to high body weight
How are sloths adapted to their method of locomotion?
Hands and feed grip, swinging momentum, reduced cervical vertebrae-head mobility.
What is digitigrade posture?
Elevated metatarsals, phalanges in contact. Reduced to 4 digits
What are the 4 requirements need to sustain locomotion?
Support. Propulsion. Manoeuvrability. Endurance
How are mammals with arboreal locomotion adapted?
Holdfasts, grasping manus, pes, claws, pads for friction
How do bat wings cause flight?
Provide lift and thrust, thin aerofoil shape
What is subterranean locomotion?
Animals which live underground their entire life
How is a kangaroo adapted for its type of locomotion?
Posterior centre of gravity, enlarge pelvic muscles, lengthy tendons, extended tibia, enlarged pes, muscular tail