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Biology Of Mammals > Social Systems > Flashcards

Flashcards in Social Systems Deck (50):
1

What are the benefits of living in groups?

Antipredator, foraging, information, reproduction , physiology

1

What are macropodid social groups like?

Mob structure. Dominance hierarchy, ritualised conflict, boxing

1

What is matrilineal fission-fusion?

Groups come together and split apart based on how the environment is

1

Why do cetacea come together in social groups?

Herding prey, bubble nets, bait balls, carousel feeding

2

What are the other antipredator effects of living in a group?

Disorientation, poor targeting, predator confusion

2

What is cuckoldry?

Adulterous wife, males invest parental effort in offspring that are not genetically their own

3

What is asocial group?

Avoiding interaction. Only come into contact during reproduction or territorial situations

4

What is the inclusive fitness formula?

Benefit/cost > 1/relatedness

4

How is aggression increased within a group?

More fighting within conspecifics about resources being caught

5

Why is kin selection important?

More likely to help those who they are most related to

7

What are social groups in pinnipedia?

Social haul outs for reproduction

8

What are the costs in relation to foraging?

Kelptoparasitism, prey sharing, increased aggression, increased visibility to prey

8

How are there variable costs and benefits in paenugulata social groups?

Caused by the environment they live in. Continuously manipulating the environment

9

What is the selfish herd?

Animals are in the heard for their own benefit. Geometry of selfish herd. Always try to be closer to the middle

10

What is social groups variable in relation to?

Temporal and spatial

11

What is the tiered sociality associated with the paenungulata?

Mother-calf, family, bond-kinship groups, clans, sub-populations

13

What is eusocial?

Highest level of sociality. Cooperative brood care, overlapping generations

13

What happens in vampire bat social groups?

Share blood meals

14

How is social learning increased in groups?

Pups are taught by adults about behaviour, foraging and prey handling.

16

What is kelptoparasitism?

One animal takes the prey or food from another. Smaller animals lose their kill

17

What are the costs associated with reproduction from living in groups?

Increased competition, cuckoldry, reproductive suppression

18

How do chiropter live in social groups?

Hibernacula roost of many thousands, maternity roost, leks

19

What are badger social groups like?

Social clans, not cooperative, forage individually.

20

What is the theory of eusociality in fossorial mammals?

Should be used as a means of using abundant food supplies

21

What are prairie dog groups like?

Live in coteries. Hostility to neighbours. High extra group paternity

22

What are the physiological benefits of living in a group?

Thermoregulation.

23

How does living in a group increase group vigilance?

Per capita amount of effort being put in reduced for the same amount of protection

25

What is female natal philopatry?

Females stay in, or return to its home area

26

What are the social strategies of male stoats?

Roamer and stayer

27

What is sociality associated with carnivores?

Group hunting, territory defence

29

How is reproductive success increased with living in a groups?

Secure matings and reproduction of your genes

29

What is the paenugulata social group like?

Mother-calf bonds. Mating groupq

31

What are meerkat social groups like?

Highly cooperative, breeding pairs, contact calls

32

What shared characteristics are transferred between individuals from living in groups?

Vocalisation, diet, behaviour

33

How does living in a group cause prey dilution?

Prey to predator ratio is less. More prey = less chance of being caught

34

How do mammals recognise their kin?

Olfactory signals, familiarity, genetic

35

How does living in a group help antipredation?

Many eyes - group vigilance

37

What are the costs associated with living in a group?

Predation, foraging, reproductive.

38

How does group living increase cooperative rearing?

Extended periods of care is costly, reduced by sharing out rearing of young amongst adults.

39

How is foraging increased from living in a group?

Group hunting, food location, prey capture, resource defence

40

How does optimal group size affect foraging benefits?

The optimal size at which they are able to capture prey of the right size and share resources within the group and defend against theft

41

What happens in stoat social groups?

Asocial structure. Females exclude females, Males exclude males

42

What are the social groups of metatheria like?

Large colonies, social grooming, dominant male marks individuals

43

How is mate choice increased with living in a group?

Use of leks and displays

44

What are the costs in relation to predation with living in a group?

Increased visibility and attack rate

45

What is reproductive suppression?

Dominant prevents subordinates from breeding through behavioural and hormonal techniques

47

How do group animals organise themselves?

Higher status animal at the centre of the heard. Sort in relation to status

48

What is the rodentia social group like?

Diverse and widespread showing a lot of variation

49

Why live in groups?

Benefit own genes by associating with kin so long as the cost ratio works in your favour

50

Which metatheria species live in socail groups?

Honey gliders and kangaroos