What are the benefits of living in groups?
Antipredator, foraging, information, reproduction , physiology
What are macropodid social groups like?
Mob structure. Dominance hierarchy, ritualised conflict, boxing
What is matrilineal fission-fusion?
Groups come together and split apart based on how the environment is
Why do cetacea come together in social groups?
Herding prey, bubble nets, bait balls, carousel feeding
What are the other antipredator effects of living in a group?
Disorientation, poor targeting, predator confusion
What is cuckoldry?
Adulterous wife, males invest parental effort in offspring that are not genetically their own
What is asocial group?
Avoiding interaction. Only come into contact during reproduction or territorial situations
What is the inclusive fitness formula?
Benefit/cost > 1/relatedness
How is aggression increased within a group?
More fighting within conspecifics about resources being caught
Why is kin selection important?
More likely to help those who they are most related to
What are social groups in pinnipedia?
Social haul outs for reproduction
What are the costs in relation to foraging?
Kelptoparasitism, prey sharing, increased aggression, increased visibility to prey
How are there variable costs and benefits in paenugulata social groups?
Caused by the environment they live in. Continuously manipulating the environment
What is the selfish herd?
Animals are in the heard for their own benefit. Geometry of selfish herd. Always try to be closer to the middle
What is social groups variable in relation to?
Temporal and spatial
What is the tiered sociality associated with the paenungulata?
Mother-calf, family, bond-kinship groups, clans, sub-populations
What is eusocial?
Highest level of sociality. Cooperative brood care, overlapping generations
What happens in vampire bat social groups?
Share blood meals
How is social learning increased in groups?
Pups are taught by adults about behaviour, foraging and prey handling.
What is kelptoparasitism?
One animal takes the prey or food from another. Smaller animals lose their kill
What are the costs associated with reproduction from living in groups?
Increased competition, cuckoldry, reproductive suppression
How do chiropter live in social groups?
Hibernacula roost of many thousands, maternity roost, leks
What are badger social groups like?
Social clans, not cooperative, forage individually.
What is the theory of eusociality in fossorial mammals?
Should be used as a means of using abundant food supplies
What are prairie dog groups like?
Live in coteries. Hostility to neighbours. High extra group paternity
What are the physiological benefits of living in a group?
How does living in a group increase group vigilance?
Per capita amount of effort being put in reduced for the same amount of protection
What is female natal philopatry?
Females stay in, or return to its home area
What are the social strategies of male stoats?
Roamer and stayer
What is sociality associated with carnivores?
Group hunting, territory defence
How is reproductive success increased with living in a groups?
Secure matings and reproduction of your genes
What is the paenugulata social group like?
Mother-calf bonds. Mating groupq
What are meerkat social groups like?
Highly cooperative, breeding pairs, contact calls
What shared characteristics are transferred between individuals from living in groups?
Vocalisation, diet, behaviour
How does living in a group cause prey dilution?
Prey to predator ratio is less. More prey = less chance of being caught
How do mammals recognise their kin?
Olfactory signals, familiarity, genetic
How does living in a group help antipredation?
Many eyes - group vigilance
What are the costs associated with living in a group?
Predation, foraging, reproductive.
How does group living increase cooperative rearing?
Extended periods of care is costly, reduced by sharing out rearing of young amongst adults.
How is foraging increased from living in a group?
Group hunting, food location, prey capture, resource defence
How does optimal group size affect foraging benefits?
The optimal size at which they are able to capture prey of the right size and share resources within the group and defend against theft
What happens in stoat social groups?
Asocial structure. Females exclude females, Males exclude males
What are the social groups of metatheria like?
Large colonies, social grooming, dominant male marks individuals
How is mate choice increased with living in a group?
Use of leks and displays
What are the costs in relation to predation with living in a group?
Increased visibility and attack rate
What is reproductive suppression?
Dominant prevents subordinates from breeding through behavioural and hormonal techniques
How do group animals organise themselves?
Higher status animal at the centre of the heard. Sort in relation to status
What is the rodentia social group like?
Diverse and widespread showing a lot of variation
Why live in groups?
Benefit own genes by associating with kin so long as the cost ratio works in your favour
Which metatheria species live in socail groups?
Honey gliders and kangaroos