Flashcards in Diseases And Conditions And Procedures (CV) Deck (48):
Mild to severe pain or pressure in the chest caused by ischemia; also called "angina"
Dilation of entire circumference of the artery
Bulging on only one side of the artery wall
Tear (dissection) in the wall of an artery because of bleeding into the weakened wall which splits the wall (more common in the aorta)
Abnormal widening (ballooning) of a portion of an artery as a result of weakness in its wall, or it may be present at birth (congenital) - the larger the aneurysm becomes, the greater the risk of rupture.
Irregularity or loss of rhythm of the heartbeat; also called "dysrhythmia"
[a-=without; rrhythm = rhythm; -ia =condition]
Arrhythmia in which there is rapid, uncoordinated quivering of the myocardium that can affect the atria or ventricles, usually described by the part that is contracting abnormally, such as atrial fibrillation or ventricular fibrillation
Thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity of arterial walls; also called "hardening of the arteries"
Most common form of arteriosclerosis caused by accumulation of fatty substances within the arterial walls, resulting in partial and, eventually, total blockage
[ather/o=fatty plaque; scler=hardening; -osis= abnormal condition]
Soft blowing sound heard on auscultation caused by turbulent blood flow
Mass of undissolved matter (commonly a blood clot, fatty plaque, or air bubble) that travels through the blood stream and becomes loaded in a blood vessel
Disease of the electrical system of the heart, which controls activity of heart muscle
Atrioventricular (AV) block in which atrial electrical impulses are delayed by a fraction of a second before being conducted to the ventricular
AV block in which only some atrial electrical impulses are conducted to the ventricles
AV block in which no electrical impulses reach the ventricles; also called "complete heart block" (CHB)
Heart failure (HF)
Occurs when the heart is unable to pump enough blood flow to meet the needs of the body and can cause a number of symptoms, such as shortness of breath, leg swelling, and exercise intolerance
Consistently elevated blood pressure, causing damage to the blood vessels and, ultimately, the heart.
[hyper=excessive, above normal; -tension=to stretch]
Inadequate supply of oxygenated blood to a body part as a result of an interruption of blood flow
[isch=to hold back; -emia=blood]
Mitral valve prolapse (MVP)
Strut unreal abnormality in which the mitral (bicuspid) valve does not close completely, resulting in a back flow of blood into the left atrium with each contraction
Abnormal sound heard on auscultation caused by defects in the valves or chambers of the heart
Myocardial infarction (MI)
Necrosis of a portion of cardiac muscle caused by partial or complete occlusion of one or more coronary arteries; also called "Heart attack"
[my/o=muscle; cardi=heart; -al=pertaining to]
Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)
Failure of the ductus arteriosus (which connects the pulmonary artery to the aortic arch in a fetus) to close after birth, resulting in an abnormal opening between the pulmonary artery and the aorta
Severe, sudden vasoconstriction and spasm in fingers and toes followed by cyanosis after exposure to cold temperature or emotional stress; also called "raynaud phenomenon"
Rheumatic heart disease
Streptococcal infection that causes damage to the heart valves and heart muscle, most commonly in children and young adults
Damage to part of the brain as a result of interruption of its blood supply caused by bleeding within brain tissue or, more commonly, blockage of an artery; also called "cerebro bascule accident (CVA)"
A stationary blood clot formed within a blood vessel or within the heart, commonly causing vascular obstruction; also called "blood clot"
[thromb=blood clot; -us=condition, structure]
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
Formation of a blood clot in a deep vein of the body, occurring most commonly in the lower legs
[thromb=blood clot; -osis=abnormal condition]
Transient ischemic attack (TIA)
Blood supply to part of the brain is briefly interrupted but does not cause permanent brain damage and may be a warning sign of a more serious and debilitating stroke in the future; also called a "ministroke"
Insertion of a small tube (catheter) through an incision into a large vein, usually of an arm (brachial approach) or leg (femoral approach) which is threaded through a blood vessel until it reaches the heart
Cardiac enzyme studies
Battery of blood tests performed to determine the presence of cardiac damage
Ultrasound technique that records blood flow velocity (speed) to image major blood vessels (arteries or veins in arms, neck, legs, abdomen) to detect obstructions caused by atherosclerotic plaques in patients at risk for stroke
Ultrasound technique used to image the heart and evaluate how the heart's chambers and valves are working and to diagnose and detect pathological conditions
[echo-=repeated sound; care/o=heart; -graphy= process of recording]
Electrocardiography (ECG, EKG)
Creation and study of graphic recordings (electrocardiograms) produced by electrical activity generated by the heart muscle; also called "cardiography"
Monitoring device worn by a patient that records prolonged electrocardiograph readings (usually 24 hours) on a portable take recorder while the patient conducts normal daily activities.
Electrocardiography (ECG) taken under controlled exercise stress conditions (typically using a treadmill) while measuring oxygen consumption
Nuclear stress test
ECG that uses a radioisotope to evaluate coronary blood flow
Blood test that measures protein released into the blood by damaged heart muscle (not skeletal muscle) and is a highly sensitive, specific indicator of recent myocardial infarction a (MI)
Surgery that opens a blocked artery by inflating a small balloon within a catheter to widen and restore blood flow in the artery
[angi/o=vessel; -plasty=surgical repair]
Restoration of normal heart rhythm by applying an electrical counter shock to the chest using a devise (defibrillator) also called "defibrillation"
Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
Bypass surgery in which peripheral veins are removed, and each end of the vein is sutured onto the coronary artery to create new routes around narrowed and blocked arteries, allowing sufficient blood flow to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle.
Device used to administer a defibrillating electrical shock to restore normal heart rhythm
Automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (AICD)
Surgically implanted electrical device that continuously monitors and corrects potentially fatal arrhythmias by delivering low-energy shocks to the heart; also called "Implantable cardi overture defibrillator (ICD)"
Automatic external defibrillator (AED)
Portable computerized device that analyzes the patient's heart rhythm and delivers an electrical shock to stimulate a heart in cardiac arrest
Surgical removal of the lining of an artery
[end-=in, within; arter=artery; -ectomy=excision, removal]
Removal of plaque (atherosclerosis) and thrombosis form an occluded carotid artery to reduce the risk of stroke
Endogenous laser therapy (EVLT)
Treatment of large varicose veins in the legs in which a laser fiber is inserted directly into the affected vein to heat the lining within the vein, causing it to collapse, shrink, and eventually disappear; also called "endogenous laser ablation (EVLA)
[eno=in, within; ven=vein; -ous= pertaining to]
Chemical injection into a varicose vein that causes inflammation and formation of fibrous tissue, which closes the vein