Diseases Conditions Procedures (Musculoskeletal) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Diseases Conditions Procedures (Musculoskeletal) Deck (39):
1

Myasthenia Travis (MG)

Autoimmune neuromuscular disorder characterized by progressive fatigue and severe muscle weakness, particularly evident with facial muscles and ptosis of the eyelids

2

Rotator cuff injury

Injury to the capsule of the shoulder joint, which is reinforced by muscles and tendons; aka "musculotendinous rotator cuff injury"

3

Sprain

Trauma to a joint that causes injury to the surrounding ligament, accompanied by pain and disability, such as an eversion sprain that occurs when the foot is twisted outward

4

Strain

Trauma to a muscle from overuse or excessive forcible stretch

5

Tendinitis

Inflammation of a tendon, usually caused by injury or overuse; aka "tendonitis"

6

Torticollis

Spasmodic contraction of the neck muscles, causing stiffness and twisting of the neck; aka "wryneck"

7

Arthritis

Inflammation of a joint usually accompanied by pain, swelling, and, commonly, changes in structure
[arthr=joint; -itis=inflammation]

8

Gouty

Arthritis caused by excessive uria acid in the body aka "gout"

9

Osteoarthritis

Progressive, degenerative joint disease characterized by bone spurs (osteophytes) and destruction of articulate cartilage
[oste/o=bone; arthr=joint; -itis=inflammation]

10

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)

Chronic, systemic inflammatory disease affecting the synovial membranes of multiple joints, eventually resulting in crippling deformities and immobility

11

Bunion

Deformity characterized by lateral deviation of the great toe as it turns in toward the second toe (Angulation) with an abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the great toe

12

Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS)

Pain or numbness resulting from compression of the Deccan nerve writhing the carpal tunnel (wrist canal through which the flexor tendons and median nerve pass)

13

Contracture

Fibrosis of connective tissue in the skin, fascia, muscle, or joint capsule that prevents normal mobility of the related tissue or joint

14

Ewing sarcoma

Malignant tumor that develops from bone marrow, usually in long mines or the pelvis, and most commonly affecting adolescent boys

15

Fracture (Fx)

Any break in a bone

16

Ganglion cyst

Noncancerous, jelly-like fluid-filled lumps that most commonly develop along the tendons or joints of the wrists or hands, but may also appear in the feet

17

Herniated disk

Herniation or rupture of the nucleus pulposus (center gelatinous material within an intervertebral disk) between two vertebrae; aka "prolapsed disk"

18

Osteomyelitis

Infection that encompasses all bone (osseous) components, including the bone marrow

19

Osteoporosis

Decrease in bone density with an increase in porosity, causing bones to become brittle and increasing the risk of frackers
[oste/o=bone; -porosis=porous]

20

Paget disease

Abnormal bone destruction and regrow to of either one or several bones at numerous sites that result in deformity; most commonly occurs in the pelvis, skull, spine, and legs; aka "osteitis deformans"

21

Rickets

Form of osteomalacia in children caused by vitamin D deficiency; aka "rachitis"

22

Sequestrum

Fragment of a necrosed bone that has become separated from surrounding tissue

23

Talipes equinovarus

Congenital deformity in which the great toe is angled laterally toward the other toes; aka "clubfoot"

24

Spinal curvatures

Abnormal deviation of the spine from its normal position that results in a misalignment or exaggeration in certain areas, as occurs in kyphosis, lordosis, and scoliosis

25

Kyphosis

Increased curvature of the thoracic region of the vertebral column, leading to a humpback posture; aka "hunchback"
[kyph=humpback; -osis= abnormal condition]

26

Lordosis

Forward curvature of the lumbar region of the vertebral column, leading to a swayback posture
[lord=curve, swayback; -osis=abnormal condition]

27

Scoliosis

Abnormal sideward curvature of the spine to the left or the right that eventually causes back pain, disk disease, or arthritis
[scoli=crooked, bent; -osis=abnormal condition]

28

Spondylitis

Inflammation of one or more vertebrae

29

Ankylosing spondylitis

Chronic inflammatory disease of unknown origin that first affects the spine and is characterized by fusion and loss of mobility of two or more vertebrae; aka "rheumatoid spondylitis"
[spondyl=vertebra (backbone); -itis=inflammation]

30

Spondylolisthesis

Partial forward dislocation of one vertebra over the one below it, most commonly the fifth lumbar vertebra over the first sacral vertebra; aka "spinal cord compression"
[spondyl/o = vertebra (backbone); -listhesis = slipping]

31

Subluxation

Partial or incomplete dislocation of a bone from its normal location within a joint, causing loss of function of the joint; aka "partial dislocation"

32

Arthrocentesis

Puncture of a joint space with a needle to obtain samples of synovial fluid for diagnostic purposes, instill medications, or remove accumulated fluid from joints to relieve pain
[arthr/o=joint; -centesis= surgical puncture]

33

Arthroscopy

Visual examination of the interior of a joint and its structures using a thin, flexible, fiberoptic scope called and arthroscope, which contains a miniature camera and projects images on a monitor to guide instruments during procedures
[arthr/o=joint; -scopy=visual examination]

34

Arthroplasty

Surgical reconstruction or replacement of a painful, degenerated joint to restore mobility in rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis or to correct a congenital deformity
[arthr/o=joint; =plasty= surgical repair]

35

Total hip arthroplasty

Replacement of the femoral head and acetabulum with prostheses that are fastened into the bone; aka "total hip replacement (THR)"

36

Sequestrectomy

Excision of the Sequestrum (segment of necrosed bone)
[sequestr = separation; -ectomy= excision, removal]

37

Muscular dystrophy (MD)

Group of hereditary diseases characterized by progressive degeneration of the muscles, leading to increasing weakness and debilitation, including Duchenne dystrophy (most common form)
[muscul=muscle; -ar= pertaining to; dys-=bad, painful, difficult; -trophy= development, nourishment]

38

Bone Fractures

Fracture=break or crack in a bone, occur when bones are broken a s a result of an injury, accident, or disease process. Classified according to the way in which the bone breaks and whether or not the skin is pierced with a bony fragment. Treatment depends on the type, location, and related injuries. X-Rays help confirm and determine the severity.
*Pathological fracture: fracture that is caused by a disease process such as osteoporosis or bone cancer.
*Closed: bone is broken but no open wound is skin
*Open: bone breaks through skin
*Complicated: extensive soft tissue injury such as a broken rib piercing the lung above
*Comminuted: bone is crushed into several pieces
*Impacted: broken ends of a bone are forced into one another
*Incomplete: line of fracture does not include the whole bone
*Greenstick: bone is broken only on one side, commonly occurs most in children because growing bones are soft
*Colles fracture: distal radius is broken by falling onto an outstretched hand

39

Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)

Chronic, systemic inflammatory disease that primarily attacks peripheral joints and surrounding muscles, tendons, ligaments, and blood vessels. Spontaneous remissions and unpredictable exacerbations mark the course of this potentially crippling disease. RA is autoimmune disease which a reaction against one's own joint tissues, especially synovial fluid, occurs. As it develops, there is congestion and edema of the synovial membrane and joint, causing formation of a thick layer of granulation tissue. Tissue invades cartilage, destroying the joint and bone. Eventually, fibrous immobility of joints (ankylosis) occurs, causing immobility and visible deformities. 3x more common in women than men. Usually required lifelong treatment, occasionally surgery. Prognosis worsens withe the development of nodules, vasculitis, and the presence of rheumatoid factor (substance detected in blood test of pt with RA). Treatments includes PT, heat applications, and drugs such as aspirin, NSAIDs, corticosteroids to reduce pain and inflammation. Other therapeutic drugs disease-modifying anti rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), such as gold salts.

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