Flashcards in Diseases Conditions Procedures (Musculoskeletal) Deck (39):
Myasthenia Travis (MG)
Autoimmune neuromuscular disorder characterized by progressive fatigue and severe muscle weakness, particularly evident with facial muscles and ptosis of the eyelids
Rotator cuff injury
Injury to the capsule of the shoulder joint, which is reinforced by muscles and tendons; aka "musculotendinous rotator cuff injury"
Trauma to a joint that causes injury to the surrounding ligament, accompanied by pain and disability, such as an eversion sprain that occurs when the foot is twisted outward
Trauma to a muscle from overuse or excessive forcible stretch
Inflammation of a tendon, usually caused by injury or overuse; aka "tendonitis"
Spasmodic contraction of the neck muscles, causing stiffness and twisting of the neck; aka "wryneck"
Inflammation of a joint usually accompanied by pain, swelling, and, commonly, changes in structure
Arthritis caused by excessive uria acid in the body aka "gout"
Progressive, degenerative joint disease characterized by bone spurs (osteophytes) and destruction of articulate cartilage
[oste/o=bone; arthr=joint; -itis=inflammation]
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
Chronic, systemic inflammatory disease affecting the synovial membranes of multiple joints, eventually resulting in crippling deformities and immobility
Deformity characterized by lateral deviation of the great toe as it turns in toward the second toe (Angulation) with an abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the great toe
Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS)
Pain or numbness resulting from compression of the Deccan nerve writhing the carpal tunnel (wrist canal through which the flexor tendons and median nerve pass)
Fibrosis of connective tissue in the skin, fascia, muscle, or joint capsule that prevents normal mobility of the related tissue or joint
Malignant tumor that develops from bone marrow, usually in long mines or the pelvis, and most commonly affecting adolescent boys
Any break in a bone
Noncancerous, jelly-like fluid-filled lumps that most commonly develop along the tendons or joints of the wrists or hands, but may also appear in the feet
Herniation or rupture of the nucleus pulposus (center gelatinous material within an intervertebral disk) between two vertebrae; aka "prolapsed disk"
Infection that encompasses all bone (osseous) components, including the bone marrow
Decrease in bone density with an increase in porosity, causing bones to become brittle and increasing the risk of frackers
Abnormal bone destruction and regrow to of either one or several bones at numerous sites that result in deformity; most commonly occurs in the pelvis, skull, spine, and legs; aka "osteitis deformans"
Form of osteomalacia in children caused by vitamin D deficiency; aka "rachitis"
Fragment of a necrosed bone that has become separated from surrounding tissue
Congenital deformity in which the great toe is angled laterally toward the other toes; aka "clubfoot"
Abnormal deviation of the spine from its normal position that results in a misalignment or exaggeration in certain areas, as occurs in kyphosis, lordosis, and scoliosis
Increased curvature of the thoracic region of the vertebral column, leading to a humpback posture; aka "hunchback"
[kyph=humpback; -osis= abnormal condition]
Forward curvature of the lumbar region of the vertebral column, leading to a swayback posture
[lord=curve, swayback; -osis=abnormal condition]
Abnormal sideward curvature of the spine to the left or the right that eventually causes back pain, disk disease, or arthritis
[scoli=crooked, bent; -osis=abnormal condition]
Inflammation of one or more vertebrae
Chronic inflammatory disease of unknown origin that first affects the spine and is characterized by fusion and loss of mobility of two or more vertebrae; aka "rheumatoid spondylitis"
[spondyl=vertebra (backbone); -itis=inflammation]
Partial forward dislocation of one vertebra over the one below it, most commonly the fifth lumbar vertebra over the first sacral vertebra; aka "spinal cord compression"
[spondyl/o = vertebra (backbone); -listhesis = slipping]
Partial or incomplete dislocation of a bone from its normal location within a joint, causing loss of function of the joint; aka "partial dislocation"
Puncture of a joint space with a needle to obtain samples of synovial fluid for diagnostic purposes, instill medications, or remove accumulated fluid from joints to relieve pain
[arthr/o=joint; -centesis= surgical puncture]
Visual examination of the interior of a joint and its structures using a thin, flexible, fiberoptic scope called and arthroscope, which contains a miniature camera and projects images on a monitor to guide instruments during procedures
[arthr/o=joint; -scopy=visual examination]
Surgical reconstruction or replacement of a painful, degenerated joint to restore mobility in rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis or to correct a congenital deformity
[arthr/o=joint; =plasty= surgical repair]
Total hip arthroplasty
Replacement of the femoral head and acetabulum with prostheses that are fastened into the bone; aka "total hip replacement (THR)"
Excision of the Sequestrum (segment of necrosed bone)
[sequestr = separation; -ectomy= excision, removal]
Muscular dystrophy (MD)
Group of hereditary diseases characterized by progressive degeneration of the muscles, leading to increasing weakness and debilitation, including Duchenne dystrophy (most common form)
[muscul=muscle; -ar= pertaining to; dys-=bad, painful, difficult; -trophy= development, nourishment]
Fracture=break or crack in a bone, occur when bones are broken a s a result of an injury, accident, or disease process. Classified according to the way in which the bone breaks and whether or not the skin is pierced with a bony fragment. Treatment depends on the type, location, and related injuries. X-Rays help confirm and determine the severity.
*Pathological fracture: fracture that is caused by a disease process such as osteoporosis or bone cancer.
*Closed: bone is broken but no open wound is skin
*Open: bone breaks through skin
*Complicated: extensive soft tissue injury such as a broken rib piercing the lung above
*Comminuted: bone is crushed into several pieces
*Impacted: broken ends of a bone are forced into one another
*Incomplete: line of fracture does not include the whole bone
*Greenstick: bone is broken only on one side, commonly occurs most in children because growing bones are soft
*Colles fracture: distal radius is broken by falling onto an outstretched hand