Diseases Conditions Procedures (Reproductive) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Diseases Conditions Procedures (Reproductive) Deck (51):
1

Cervicitis

Inflammation of the uterine cervix, which is usually the result of infection or a sexually transmitted infection
[cervic=neck, cervix uteri; -itis = inflammation]

2

Ectopic pregnancy

Implantation of the fertilized ovum outside of the uterine cavity, most commonly in the oviducts (tubal pregnancy)

3

Endometriosis

Presence of endometrial tissue outside (ectopic) the uterine cavity, such as the pelvis or abdomen
[endo-=within, in; metri=uterus (womb); -osis= abnormal condition]

4

Fibroid

Benign neoplasm in the uterus that is composed largely of fibrous tissue; aka "leiomyoma"
[fibr=fiber, fibrous tissue; -oid=resembling]

5

Fistula

Abnormal tunnel connecting two body cavities, such as the rectum and the vagina, or a body cavity to the skin, such as the rectum to the outside of the body, caused by an injury, infection, or inflammation

6

Vesicovaginal

Abnormal duct between the bladder and bagging that results in severe urine loss from the vagina
[vesic/o=bladder; vagin=vagina; -al=pertaining to]

7

Gestational hypertension

Potentially life-threatening condition of high blood pressure usually develops after the 20th week of pregnancy and is characterized by edema and proteinuria

8

Preeclampsia

No convulsive from of gestational hypertension that, if left untreated, may progress to eclampsia

9

Eclampsia

Convulsive form of gestational hypertension that is a medical emergency and life-threatening to the mother, baby, or both

10

Sterility

Inability of a woman to become pregnant or for a man to impregnate a woman

11

Toxic shock syndrome (TSS)

Rare, sometimes fatal, staphylococcal infection that generally occurs in menstruating woman, most of whom use vaginal tampons

12

Anorchism

Congenital absence of one or both testes; aka "anorchia"
[an=without, not; orch=testis; -ism=condition]

13

Balanitis

Inflammation of the skin covering the glans penis caused by irritation and invasion of microorganisms and commonly associated with inadequate hygiene of the prepuce and phimosis
[balan=glans penis; -itis=inflammation]

14

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)

Gradual enlargement of the prostate gland that normally occurs as a man ages and is common in men older than age 60

15

Cryptorchidism

Failure of one or both testicles to descend into the scrotum
[crypt=hidden; orchid=testis; -ism=condition]

16

Epispadias

Congenital defect in which the urethra opens on the upper side of the penis near the glans penis instead of the tip
[epi-=above, upon; -spadias=slit, fissure]

17

Hypospadias

Congenital defect in which the male urethra opens on the undersurface of the penis instead of the tip
[hyp/o=under, below, deficient; -spadias = slit, fissure]

18

Impotence

Inability of a man to achieve or maintain a penile erection; aka "erectile dysfunction"

19

Phimosis

Stenosis or narrowing of the reputable orifice so that the foreskin cannot be pushed back over the glans penis
[phim=muzzle; -osis=abnormal condition, increase]

20

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs)

Any disease affecting the male or female reproductive system that is acquired as a result of sexual intercourse or other intimate contact with an infected individual; aka "venereal disease"

21

Chlamydia

One of the most damaging STIs caused by the bacterium "Chlamydia trachomatis" causing cervicitis in women and urethritis in men

22

Genital warts

Wart(s) in the genitalia caused by human papilloma virus (HPV) and possibly associated with cervical cancer in women
[genit=genitalia; -al=pertaining to]

23

Gonorrhea

Contagious STI caused by the bacterium "neisseria gonorrhoeae" and most commonly affecting the genitourinary tract and occasionally the pharynx or rectum
[gon/o= seed (ovum or spermatozoon); -rrhea=discharge, flow]

24

Herpes genitalis

Infection with herpes simplex virus type 2 of the male or female genital and año recital skin and mucosa that may be transmitted through the placenta to the fetus during delivery

25

Syphilis

Infectious, chronic STI, characterized by a skin lesion (chancre) typically on the genitals, rectum, or mouth, which may cause long-term complications, including death if left untreated

26

Trichomoniasis

Protozoan infestation of the vagina, urethra, or prostate and the most common STI affecting men and women, although symptoms are more common in women

27

Candidiasis

Vaginal fungal infection caused by "Candida albicans" and characterized by a curry or cheese like discharge and extreme itching

28

colposcopy

Examination of the vagina and cervix with an optical magnifying instrument (colposcope)
[colp/o= vagina; -scopy=visual examination]

29

Hysterosalpingography

Radiography of the uterus and oviducts after injection of a contrast medium
[hyster/o=uterus (womb); salpin/o=tube; -graphy=process of recording]

30

Laparoscopy

Visual examination of the abdominal cavity with a laparoscope through one or more small incisions in the abdominal wall, usually at the emboli cuts
[lapar/o= abdomen; -scopy= visual examination]

31

Mammography

Radiography of the breasts used to diagnose benign and malignant tumors
[mamm/o= breast; -graphy=process of recording]

32

Papanicolaou (pap) test

Microscopic analysis of a small tissue sample obtained from the cervix and vagina using a swab to detect carcinoma

33

Digital rectal examination (DRE)

Examination of the prostate gland by finger palpation through the anal canal and the rectum
[rect=rectum; -al=pertaining to]

34

Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test

Blood test used to screen for prostate cancer in which elevated levels of PSA are associated with prostate enlargement and cancer

35

Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) and biopsy of the prostate

An ultrasound probe is inserted into the rectum to obtain an image of the prostate gland and collect multiple needle biopsy specimens of the prostate gland tissues where abnormalities are detected
[trans= across, through; Rect= rectum; -al =pertaining to; bi-=two; -opsy=view of]

36

Cerclage

Obstetric procedure in which a nonabsorbable suture is used for holding the cervix closed to prevent spontaneous abortion in a woman who has an incompetent cervix

37

Dilation and curettage (D&C)

Surgical procedure that widens the cervical canal of the uterus (dilation) so that the endometrium of the uterus can be scraped (curettage) to stop prolonged or heavy uterine bleeding, diagnose uterine abnormalities, and obtain tissue for microscopic examination

38

Hysterosalpingooophorectomy

Surgical removal of the uterus, a Fallopian tube, and an ovary
[hyster/o= uterus; scalping/o=tube; oophor=ovary; -ectomy= excision]

39

Lumpectomy

Excision of a small primary breast tumor ("lump") and some of the normal tissue that surrounds it

40

Mastectomy

Complete or partial excision of one or both breasts, most commonly performed to remove a malignant tumor
[mast=breast; -ectomy=excision, removal]

41

Modified radical mastectomy

Mastectomy that involves excision of an entire breast, including lymph nodes in the underarm (auxiliary dissection)

42

Radical mastectomy

Mastectomy that involves excision of an entire breast, all underarm lymph nodes, and chest wall muscles under the breast

43

Total mastectomy

Mastectomy that involves excision of an entire breast, nipple, areole, and the involved overlying skin; aka "simple mastectomy"

44

Reconstructive breast surgery

Reconstruction of a breast that has been removed because of cancer or other disease; commonly possible immediately after mastectomy so the patient awakens from anesthesia with a breast mound already in place.

45

Tissue (skin) expansion

Common breast reconstruction technique in which a balloon expander is inserted beneath the skin and chest muscle, saline solution is gradually injected to increase size, and the expander is replace with a more permanent implant

46

Transverse rect us abdominal muscle (TRAM) flap

Surgical creation of a skin flap (using skin and fat from the lower half of the abdomen), which is passed under the skin to the breast area, shaped into a natural-looking breast, and sutured into place

47

Tubal ligation

Sterilization procedure that involves blocking both Fallopian tubes by cutting or burning them and tying them off

48

Circumcision

Surgical removal of the foreskin or prepuce of the penis; usually performed on the male infant

49

Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP)

Surgical procedure to relieve obstruction caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia (excessive overgrowth of normal tissue) by insertion of a respects cope into the penis and through the urethra to "chip away" at prostatic tissue and flush out ships using an irrigating solution

50

Amniocentesis

"Amniotic fluid test" is an obstetric procedure used in prenatal diagnosis of abnormalities and fetal a infections. Surgical puncture of the amniotic sac to remove amniotic fluid, which contains fetal cells. The cells are grown in a culture medium and then fixed and stained. Under the microscope, fetal DNA is examined for genetic abnormalities; the most common abnormalities detected are Down syndrome, Edward syndrome (trisomy 18), Turner syndrome (monosomy X). Routine procedure; possible complications include infection of the amniotic sac from the needle and failure of the puncture to heal properly; serious complications include miscarriage. Otherwise, the puncture heals, and the amniotic sac replenishes the liquid over the next 24-48 hours.

51

Vasectomy and its reversal

Vasectomy= urologist makes in incision through the scrotal sac withe the patient under local anesthesia, cuts the vas deferens from each testicle, removes a small segment, and ties and binds off (ligates) the ends with sutures. Impedes sperm from entering the seminal stream (ejaculate) and thereby prevents fertilization from occurring. The testicles continue to produce sperm, which is reabsorbed by the body. For male sterilization and/or a permanent method of birth control. Advances in microsurgery have made it possible for vasectomy reversal (vasovasostomy). Reversal is more complicated and is typically an outpatient procedure with the patien under spinal or general anesthesia. Greatest chance of success within the first 3 years after vasectomy.

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