Flashcards in Dr. Roecker's Rapid Review - Cardiovascular Pathology Deck (72):
What is the name for plaques?
What is hardening of the arteries called?
What cause hardening of the arteries?
Atherosclerosis has the greatest impact on which arteries?
Atherosclerosis ______ lumen.
Atherosclerosis increases what?
Atherosclerosis commonly follows what?
Damage to the endothelium (HTN)
Atheromas are filled with what? 3
Necrotic cellular debris,
Cholesterol esters (lipids)
Atheromas are covered by what?
A fibrous cap
Atheromas may ______ and cause _____.
What is a common cause of MI?
When atheromas rupture and cause a massive thrombosis.
95% of hypertension cases are __________.
What is "essential hypertension"?
Idiopathic, familial history
VSD - Ventricular Septal Defect has a hole between what?
Left and right ventricles
What is the most common congenital defect?
VSD - Ventricular Septal Defect
Which defect has a hole between the left and right atria?
Atrial Septal Defect - ASD
ASD has a patent _____.
What is the most common cause of cyanosis at birth?
Tetralogy of Fallot
What four things make up Tetralogy of Fallot?
Aorta overriding VSD
Right ventricular outflow obstruction
Right ventricular hypertrophy
What 5 things do you see with coarctation of the aorta?
Narrowing of aortic arch,
Upper extremity HTN,
Lower extremity claudication (vascular),
A localized malformation characterized by deformity of the aortic media, causing narrowing, usually severe, of the lumen of the vessel.
Coarctation of the aorta
What is transposition of the great vessels?
Reversal of the aorta and pulmonary arteries
Transposition of the great vessels causes?
What is the most common cause of pleural effusion?
Congestive Heart Failure - CHF
Pleural effusion has no _______ and is _______.
Congestive Heart failure is the result of what? 3
Dysfunctional systole, diastole, or valvular dysfunction.
Valvular dysfunction in CHF could either be ____ or ____.
Ventricular hypertrophy is most common on which ventricle?
Which type of hypertrophy is pathologic?
Which type of hypertrophy is the result of endurance training (athlete's heart)?
What is "heart muscle disease" called?
What is the MC cardiomyopathy?
Dilated cardiomyopathy is?
Dilation of all chambers
What causes dilated cardiomyopathy?
Alcohol, genetics, heart failure
Which cardiomyopathy has contractile gene mutations?
In hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, the muscle is ________.
Which type of cardiomyopathy has diastole dysfunction?
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy may cause______ via _____.
Which type of cardiomyopathy is rare?
Which type of cardiomyopathy causes a stiff myocardium?
What can cause restrictive cardiomyopathy? 3
Myocardial infarction (MI) causes ______, death of ________ aka ______ due to _______.
Females present with ____ MI symptoms in ______.
MI symptoms are:
Neck, jaw, or left arm pain
Death via MI is frequently the result of ________ (___) produced by electrical instability after myocyte necrosis.
This causes sharp, substernal chest pain, reported as "crushing" or "pressure" worse with activity.
Angina has at least ____% occlusion of which artery?
Angina is not and MI but associated with what?
Acute thrombosis of a coronary artery or vasospasm
What is angina that is becoming more intense and more frequent (pre-MI)?
What is it called when pericardial sac becomes inflamed?
Pericarditis may cause what?
Pericarditis may follow what two things?
Right sided heart failure resulting from pulmonary pathology is called?
What two pulmonary pathology cause Cor pulmonale?
pulmonary interstitial fibrosis
What is vasoconstriction of the hands, pallor, cyanosis (red, white, blue), benign and may be secondary to atherosclerosis?
What is the MC vasculitis in the elderly?
Temporal arteritis is aka?
Giant cell arteritis
What are symptoms and signs of temporal arteritis?
Vision loss, headaches, fever
What region does the temporal arteritis affect?
What is the cause of temporal arteritis (aka giant cell arthritis)
Polyarteritis nodosa is inflammation of which arteries?
Small arteries (heart, renal)
Polyarteritis nodosa avoided which vessels?
What is the cause of Polyarteritis nodosa?
What happens if Polyarteritis nodosa goes untreated?
It is fatal
What is the most common vasculitis among children?
Kawasaki disease attacks which artery and causes what in children?
What is a sign of Kawasaki disease in children?
Is Kawasaki disease common? What causes it?
What is thromboangiitis obliterans aka?
What is thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger disease)?
Inflammation of the medium sized arteries of the hands and feet.
Buerger disease has a strong association with what?