Dr. Roecker's Rapid Review - Cardiovascular Pathology Flashcards Preview

My NBCE Part 1 - Pathology Study > Dr. Roecker's Rapid Review - Cardiovascular Pathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Dr. Roecker's Rapid Review - Cardiovascular Pathology Deck (72):
1

What is the name for plaques?

atheromas

2

What is hardening of the arteries called?

atherosclerosis

3

What cause hardening of the arteries?

atheromas (plaques)

4

Atherosclerosis has the greatest impact on which arteries?

Large muscular

5

Atherosclerosis ______ lumen.

narrows

6

Atherosclerosis increases what?

thrombosis

7

Atherosclerosis commonly follows what?

Damage to the endothelium (HTN)

8

Atheromas are filled with what? 3

Macrophages,
Necrotic cellular debris,
Cholesterol esters (lipids)

9

Atheromas are covered by what?

A fibrous cap

10

Atheromas may ______ and cause _____.

Rupture
Massive thrombosis

11

What is a common cause of MI?

When atheromas rupture and cause a massive thrombosis.

12

95% of hypertension cases are __________.

Essential

13

What is "essential hypertension"?

Idiopathic, familial history

14

VSD - Ventricular Septal Defect has a hole between what?

Left and right ventricles

15

What is the most common congenital defect?

VSD - Ventricular Septal Defect

16

Which defect has a hole between the left and right atria?

Atrial Septal Defect - ASD

17

ASD has a patent _____.

Foremen ovale

18

What is the most common cause of cyanosis at birth?

Tetralogy of Fallot

19

What four things make up Tetralogy of Fallot?

Large VSD
Aorta overriding VSD
Right ventricular outflow obstruction
Right ventricular hypertrophy

20

What 5 things do you see with coarctation of the aorta?

Narrowing of aortic arch,
Upper extremity HTN,
Lower extremity claudication (vascular),
Cyanosis,
Weak pulses

21

A localized malformation characterized by deformity of the aortic media, causing narrowing, usually severe, of the lumen of the vessel.

Coarctation of the aorta

22

What is transposition of the great vessels?

Reversal of the aorta and pulmonary arteries

23

Transposition of the great vessels causes?

Cyanosis

24

What is the most common cause of pleural effusion?

Congestive Heart Failure - CHF

25

Pleural effusion has no _______ and is _______.

No inflammation,
transudate.

26

Congestive Heart failure is the result of what? 3

Dysfunctional systole, diastole, or valvular dysfunction.

27

Valvular dysfunction in CHF could either be ____ or ____.

Stenosis
prolapse

28

Ventricular hypertrophy is most common on which ventricle?

left

29

Which type of hypertrophy is pathologic?

concentric

30

Which type of hypertrophy is the result of endurance training (athlete's heart)?

eccentric

31

What is "heart muscle disease" called?

cardiomyopathy

32

What is the MC cardiomyopathy?

Dilated cardiomyopathy

33

Dilated cardiomyopathy is?

Dilation of all chambers

34

What causes dilated cardiomyopathy?

Alcohol, genetics, heart failure

35

Which cardiomyopathy has contractile gene mutations?

hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

36

In hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, the muscle is ________.

hypercontractile

37

Which type of cardiomyopathy has diastole dysfunction?

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

38

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy may cause______ via _____.

Sudden death
Lethal arrhythmia

39

Which type of cardiomyopathy is rare?

Restrictive cardiomyopathy.

40

Which type of cardiomyopathy causes a stiff myocardium?

Restrictive cardiomyopathy.

41

What can cause restrictive cardiomyopathy? 3

amyloidosis (elderly)
Nutritional deficiency
helminths infection

42

Myocardial infarction (MI) causes ______, death of ________ aka ______ due to _______.

Heart attack,
Cardiac myocytes
Infarction
Ischemia

43

Females present with ____ MI symptoms in ______.

Mild
stomach

44

MI symptoms are:

Dyspnea,
Neck, jaw, or left arm pain

45

Death via MI is frequently the result of ________ (___) produced by electrical instability after myocyte necrosis.

Cardiac arrhythmias
(V-fib)

46

This causes sharp, substernal chest pain, reported as "crushing" or "pressure" worse with activity.

angina

47

Angina has at least ____% occlusion of which artery?

70
coronary

48

Angina is not and MI but associated with what?

Acute thrombosis of a coronary artery or vasospasm

49

What is angina that is becoming more intense and more frequent (pre-MI)?

Unstable angina

50

What is it called when pericardial sac becomes inflamed?

pericarditis

51

Pericarditis may cause what?

fibrinoid necrosis

52

Pericarditis may follow what two things?

MI
Viral infection

53

Right sided heart failure resulting from pulmonary pathology is called?

Cor pulmonale

54

What two pulmonary pathology cause Cor pulmonale?

Pulmonary HTN
pulmonary interstitial fibrosis

55

What is vasoconstriction of the hands, pallor, cyanosis (red, white, blue), benign and may be secondary to atherosclerosis?

Reynard's phenomenon

56

What is the MC vasculitis in the elderly?

Temporal arteritis

57

Temporal arteritis is aka?

Giant cell arteritis

58

What are symptoms and signs of temporal arteritis?

Vision loss, headaches, fever

59

What region does the temporal arteritis affect?

Temporal region

60

What is the cause of temporal arteritis (aka giant cell arthritis)

idiopathic

61

Polyarteritis nodosa is inflammation of which arteries?

Small arteries (heart, renal)

62

Polyarteritis nodosa avoided which vessels?

Pulmonary vessels

63

What is the cause of Polyarteritis nodosa?

idiopathic

64

What happens if Polyarteritis nodosa goes untreated?

It is fatal

65

What is the most common vasculitis among children?

Kawasaki disease

66

Kawasaki disease attacks which artery and causes what in children?

Coronary arteries
Heart attacks

67

What is a sign of Kawasaki disease in children?

Strawberry tongue

68

Is Kawasaki disease common? What causes it?

No, rare
idiopathic

69

What is thromboangiitis obliterans aka?

Buerger disease

70

What is thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger disease)?

Inflammation of the medium sized arteries of the hands and feet.

71

Buerger disease has a strong association with what?

Cigarette smoking

72

Buerger disease may cause what?

Ulceration and gangrene that require amputation