Cardiovascular 2 Flashcards Preview

My NBCE Part 1 - Pathology Study > Cardiovascular 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiovascular 2 Deck (53):
1

Hypertension is elevation of BP >_____ on __ or more occasions.

140/90
3

2

95% of HTN are?

Essential (unknown)

3

Secondary HTN can be due to:

Hyperthyroidism
Cushing's
Unilateral renal artery stenosis
pheochromocytoma

4

Rapidly progressing HTN that can lead to stroke or heart failure and early death:

Malignant hypertension

5

These patients present with dyspnea on exertion, basal crackles in both lungs, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, raised jugular venous pressure, tender hepatomegaly, and bilateral pitting ankle.

CHF

6

CHF is caused by: 5

Coronary artery disease
HTN
Valvular heart disease
Congenital heart disease
cardiomyopathy

7

Disease myocardium is called:

cardiomyopathy

8

Cardiomyopathy is caused by:

Alcohol, pregnancy, and viral infections

9

MC type of cardiomyopathy is:

dilated

10

Three types of cardiomyopathy:

Dilated
Hypertrophic
restrictive

11

Right sided heart failure called:

Cor pulmonale

12

Two things that cause cor pulmonale?

COPD
Pulmonary embolism

13

Occurs when heart is compressed due to excess fluid in pericardial sac

Cardiac tamponade

14

Beck's triangle associated with:

Cardiac tamponade

15

What is Beck's triangle:

Hypotension
Heart sounds distant
High jugular venous pressure

16

Caused by atherosclerotic narrowing of large arteries:

Peripheral vascular disease

17

Present with intermittent claudication - leg pain worse on walking and relieved by rest.

Peripheral vascular disease

18

This is related to Virchow's triad:

Deep vein thrombosis

19

Virchow's triad is:

Viscosity - increased clotting
Stasis - in veins from prolonged immobilization
Damage - to the endothelium of vessel wall/trauma

20

May be associated with Factor V Leiden defect

DVT

21

Pulmonary embolism may be related to:

DVT

22

95% of pulmonary embolism come from ___ or ___.

Leg or pelvis

23

Pulmonary embolism occludes one of the _______.

Pulmonary arteries

24

PE causes a __________ mismatch

Ventricular/perfusion

25

PE presets with a triad of:

Shortness of breath
Pleuritic chest pain
Hemoptysis - blood stained sputum

26

Varicose veins may lead to:

thrombophlebitis

27

Inflammation of the vein wall and may lead to thrombosis, presents with a swollen tender superficial cord under the skin:

thrombophlebitis

28

Decreased blood flow triggered by cold and emotion.

Raynaud's disease

29

Raynaud's disease is often seen in _______. Cause?

Young females
No known cause

30

Raynaud's disease: characterized by: white ____, blue____, red _____

vasospasm
Cyanosis
vasodilation

31

Raynaud's phenomenon secondary to:

SLE
Athersclerosis
scleroderma

32

May be part of a CREST syndrome with anti-centromere antibodies:

Raynaud's syndrome

33

CREST: C =

calcinosis cutis

34

CREST: R =

Raynaud's phenomenon

35

CREST: E =

Esophageal dysfunction

36

CREST: S =

sclerodactyly

37

CREST: T =

telangiectasia

38

Polyarteritis nodosa is vascular inflammation due to a type _____ hypersensitivity reaction.

III

39

Polyarteritis nodosa affects ______ sized arteries, 30% are seropositive for ______.

Medium
Hepatitis B

40

May present with fever, abdominal pains, and palpable purpura.

Polyarteritis nodosa

41

Idiopathic segmental inflammation of medium sized arteries and veins seen in male smokers between 20-40 years old.

Buerger's disease

42

Buerger's disease aka

Thromboangiitis obliterans

43

Buerger's disease presents with:

Intermittent claudication and weakened distal pulses

44

Localized giant cell inflammation:

Temporal arteritis

45

Temporal arthritis associated with a raised ____, mainly seen in ______, may be associated with ________, and may cause ______>

ESR
Elderly
polymyalgia rheumatica
blindness

46

Pulseless disease

Takayasu's arteritis

47

This is due to inflammation of the aorta, possibly immune. MC in Asian females

Takayasu's arthritis
upper

48

Benign blood vessel tumor.

hemangioma

49

Hemangioma can occur in the ___ or the ____.

Skin, spine

50

Neoplastic (blood) seen in people with AIDS

Kaposi sarcoma

51

Kaposi sarcoma cause by HHV ___?

8

52

Benign myxomatous tumor in the region of the fossa ovals.

Atrial myxoma

53

Atrial myxoma is in the region of the _____.

Fossa ovalis