GI Pathology Flashcards Preview

My NBCE Part 1 - Pathology Study > GI Pathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in GI Pathology Deck (51):
1

Failure of lower esophageal sphincter (LES) to relax; loss of ganglion cells.

achalasia

2

Hernia of the stomach into the chest through the diaphragm.

Hiatal hernia

3

Esophageal varices are dilated veins in the _____ esophagus. Seen in what?

Lower
Portal hypertension

4

Chronic inflammation of the lower esophagus due to acid regurgitation.

GERD
Gastro-esophageal reflux disease

5

Premalignant metaplastic change of lower esophagus due to GERD.

Barrett's esophagus

6

MC esophageal cancer: Show excess _______ in the diet.

Squamous cell carcinoma
nitrosamines

7

Esophageal cancer: Adenocarcinoma comes from?

Barrett's esophagus

8

Linear tear in lower esophagus due to protracted vomiting and retching.

Mallory-Weiss syndrome

9

Peptic ulcer disease is due to a ______ infection.

Helicobacter pylori

10

Peptic ulcer presents with an ulcer along the ________ of the stomach - 70% of the time or on the _____95%.

Lesser curvature - 70%
Duodenum - 95%

11

Epigastric pain is _____ with meals in gastric/stomach and _____ with duodenal ulcers.

Greater - gastric
Decreases - duodenal

12

Young male infant, projectile vomiting, hypertrophic pylori sphincter

Congenital pyloric stenosis.

13

Atrophic gastritis is caused by _____ infection. Predisposition to _______ and ________.

H. pylori
Pernicious anemia (B12)
Stomach cancer

14

What can cause a gastric carcinoma?

H pylori infection
Smoking
High nitrosamines in diet

15

Gastric carcinoma is MC in what area of stomach?

Lesser curvature

16

Unexplained weight loss is seen in gastric carcinoma as well as Troisier's sign which is:

Metastatic lymph node in the left supraclavicular fossa (node is known as Virchow's node)

17

Non-caseous granuloma, cobblestone terminal ileum, skip lesions, and fistula.

Crohn's disease

18

Crohn's disease aka

Regional ileitis

19

Meckel's diverticulum is a remnant of?

vitelline duct

20

What are the 2's of Meckel's diverticulum?

2" long
2' proximal to the ileocecal valve
2% of people
2x's MC in males
2 types of tissue: gastric and pancreatic

21

Celiac disease aka? Due to malabsorption of?

Celiac sprue
gluten

22

Whipple's disease aka?

Tropical sprue

23

Tropical sprue/Whipple's disease caused by? Results in?

trophermya whipplei (gram+ rod)
steatorrhea and arthritis

24

Appendicitis is inflammation of the appendix following blockage of it's lumber by a ______.

fecalith

25

Appendicitis: periumbilical pain radiation to the ____ pain with tenderness at ________ point.

RLQ
McBurney's point

26

Diverticulis is inflammation in the diverticulum in the _____. MC in _______. Causes _____ pain and blood in stool.

Bowel
Older male
LLQ

27

Telescoping of a proximal part of bowel into a distal segment. Presents with abdominal pain and intestinal obstruction in a _____.

intussusception
child

28

Arrested neural crest cell migration, congenital aganglionosis of the _______ colon. Present with chronic constipation and a distended abdomen in _____. What is it?

Descending
Children
Hirschsprung's disease

29

Chronic ulcerative inflammation. Present with bloody diarrhea, toxic megacolon, and an increased risk of colon CA.

Ulcerative colitis

30

Ulcerative colitis is mainly confined to what area?

rectum

31

Third most common cancer in both sexes.

Carcinoma of the colon

32

Unexplained weight loss and change of bowel habits in the older population.

Carcinoma of the colon

33

Twisting part of the bowel on itself. Present with intestinal obstruction and abdominal pain.

volvulus

34

Volvulus is MC in what population? Also MC in what area?

Black
Sigmoid colon

35

Oral pigmentation and multiple intestinal polyps.

Peutz-Jegher syndrome

36

Spastic colon of unknown cause.

Irritable bowel disease

37

Irritable bowel disease is associated with?

Interstitial cystitis

38

Present with abdominal pain relieved by dedication with diarrhea and/or constipation.

Irritable bowel disease

39

Inflammation of the liver.

Hepatitis

40

This is seen in the liver with chronic passive venous congestion seen in CHF.

Nutmeg liver

41

Hepatitis __ and __ : fecal/oral transmission. Water borne infection (vowels like the bowels)

Hepatitis A and E

42

Hepatitis ___: intravenous drug use and sexually transmitted; chronic carrier state

B

43

Chronic Hepatitis: MC cause of post transfusion hepatitis

C

44

Chronic liver condition with damage, fibrosis and regeneration nodules.

Cirrhosis

45

Cirrhosis usually presents with what?

Portal hypertension

46

Obstruction to portal blood flow to the liver due to liver fibrosis.

Portal hypertension

47

Rare cause of childhood hepatoencephalopathy caused by the use of aspirin in children.

Reyes's syndrome

48

Accumulation of excess fluid in the abdomen.

ascites

49

Causes aspires, caput medusae, esophageal varices, and internal hemorrhoids

Portal hypertension

50

Dilated varicose veins radiating from the umbilicus

Caput medusae

51

Portal tension may also be cause by decrease _____ and increased _____ levels.

Protein
aldosterone