Cardiovascular Flashcards Preview

My NBCE Part 1 - Pathology Study > Cardiovascular > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiovascular Deck (50):
1

Cyanotic heart disease is due to a _____ to _____ shunt in the heart.

Right to left

2

What three things show cyanotic heart disease?

Fallot's Tetralogy
Transposition of the great vessels
Persistent Truncus Arteriosis

3

MC cyanotic heart disease:

Fallot's tetralogy

4

Fallot's Tetralogy consists of? 4

Pulmonary stenosis
Right ventricular hypertrophy
Overriding (dextra-position) aorta
VSD

5

Failure of ductus arteriosus to close after birth?

PDA - patent ductus arteriosus

6

Due to defect in the atrial septum: failure of the ostium secundum to close.

ASD - Atrial septal defect

7

Due to defect in the ventricular septum:

VSD - ventral septal defect

8

MC congenital heart disease (30%)

VSD

9

Due to narrowing of the arch near the ligamentum arteriosum.

Coarctation of the aorta

10

Uncommon cause of congenital cyanotic heart disease in which the aorta is connected to the right ventricle and the pulmonary trunk is connected to the left ventricle.

Transposition of the Great Vessels

11

Due to a post-strep infection

Rheumatic fever

12

Rheumatic fever is what type of hypersensitivity reaction?

Type II

13

MC valve to be damaged in rheumatic fever?

mitral

14

In rheumatic fever this valve will be damage 25% of the time.

aortic

15

Characterized by Aschoff bodies (granulomas with Antischkow giant cells) and MacCullum's patches which are found in the ____ atrium.

Rheumatic fever
left

16

Endocarditis may be caused by what?

Strep. pyogenes, viridians, or Staph. aureus

17

Jones major criteria in diagnosing rheumatic fever are:

SPEC:
Syndeham's chorea
Polyarteritis
Erythema marginatum
Carditis
Subcutaneous nodules

18

This type of Endocarditis is seen MC as a sequel of rheumatic fever (S. viridians)

Subacute bacterial endocarditis

19

This Endocarditis is an infection of previously HEALTHY valves.

Acute bacterial endocarditis

20

This Endocarditis has splinter hemorrhages, Olser's Nodes and Janeway nodules.

Subacute bacterial endocarditis

21

This Endocarditis is seen MC in intravenous drug users (staph. Aureus)

Acute endocarditis

22

This the sterile (non-infective) Endocarditis seen in SLE?

Libman Sacks Endocarditis (SLE - get it?)

23

Libman Sacks Endocarditis affects which two valves?

Mitral and tricuspid

24

This is a treponema palladium infection leading to aortic aneurysm, aortic stenosis, and angina pectoris.

Syphilitic aortitis

25

Syphilitic aortitis often affects the _____ aorta in ____ syphilis.

Arch of the aorta
tertiary

26

Clot formed within an atherosclerotic vessel with lines of Zahn.

thrombus

27

Dislodged mass of undissolved material in blood vessel traveling the blood.

embolism

28

Which type of embolism is painless, pulseless, and perishingly cold limb?

Arterial embolism

29

Thickening of the arteries with loss of elasticity and contractility due to infiltration of the tunica intima of collagen and smooth muscle fibers.

arteriosclerosis

30

Commonly caused by lipid/calcium deposits in the tunica intima.

athersclerosis

31

Who is at risk for athersclerosis:

Male, obese, age

32

The pathology of this includes subendothelial fatty streaks, fibrosis, atheromas, rupture with eventual occlusion or embolus formation.

athersclerosis

33

Ischemic heart disease is caused by ______ athersclerosis.

coronary

34

Coronary athersclerosis in ischemic heart disease leads to what?

Angina
Myocardial infarction
CHF

35

This condition is caused by REVERSIBLE inadequately perfused myocardium and the pain is aggravated by stress and exertion and RELIEVED by rest.

Angina pectoris

36

This angina occurs AT REST and is caused by what?

Prinzmetal (variant) angina
Coronary artery spasm

37

This condition of the heart is NOT relieved by rest.

Myocardial infarction

38

Myocardial infarction related to ischemic necrosis of the myocardium due to blocked coronary artery, mainly the:

Left anterior descending artery

39

This condition results in the release of cardiac enzymes such as troponin, creating kinase-MB, and lactic dehydrogenase.

Myocardial infarction

40

Local dilation of an artery: congenital or acquired.

aneurysm

41

Atherosclerotic aneurysm most often affect:

Abdominal aorta

42

This type of aneurysm presents with a Pulsatile abdominal mass with a bruit and low back pain.

Abdominal aortic aneurysm

43

Dissecting aneurysm results from a longitudinal _____ tearing of the _________ _____ aorta.

Intramural
Ascending thoracic

44

Dissecting aneurysm is seen in these two syndromes

Marfan's and Ehlers-Danlos

45

Syphilitic aneurysm occurs where?

Arch of the aorta

46

Berry aneurysms are ______ weaknesses only present in the _____ decade.

Congenital
3rd

47

Berry aneurysm may be associated with what?

adult polycystic disease of the kidney

48

What area is the Berry aneurysm located?

Anterior part of the circle of Willis: ant. Communicating artery (?)

49

Berry aneurysm can cause a ___________ hemorrhage in young adults.

subarachnoid

50

This can present with a severe sudden (thunder clap) headache, neck stiffness, and loss of consciousness.

Berry aneurysm