Flashcards in Early Physical Development Deck (26):
When is physical development most rapid?
During first 2 years of life
What kinds of bxs are learned in the 1st year of life?
Grasp, sit, crawl, stand, climb, & walk w/assistance
What kinds of bxs are learned by age 2?
Run, climb stairs, jump, throw a ball, scribble
What are the 4 major infant reflexes?
(1) Palmar grasp reflex, (2) Babinski reflex, (3) Moro or Startle reflex, and (4) Stepping reflex
What is a reflex?
Automatic physical response to specific kind of stimulation
Palmar grasp reflex
Grasps a finger pressed in palm
Extends big toe and spreads small toe when sole of foot is stroked
Moro or Startle reflex
When someone is supporting infant's body permits head to drop slightly or when loud, sudden sound, infant arches back, extends legs, and throws arms out as if grabbing for support
When infant held in upright position and soles of feet touch ground, infant makes stepping motions
When do reflexes disappear?
During first 6 months of life; experts think it's d/t gradual increase in voluntary control as cortex gains influence over behavior and suppresses subcortical reflexive responses
Early sensory skills
Newborns have a great deal of sensory ability at birth
Vision of newborn
Very limited at birth (20/600) though within few days (or even minutes) after birth prefer facial images to non-facial forms; can discriminate mom's face from strangers at 1 month; have color vision by 2-3 months; by 6 months, have some depth perception and visual acuity close to an adult
Hearing of newborn
Fetus hears sounds in uterus in last few months of development and newborn's hearing is only slightly less sensitive than an adult's; w/in days after birth, prefer sound of mom's voice and can distinguish between vowels "A" and "I"; Soon after birth exhibit sound or auditory localization (turn head toward sound) then this ability disappears between 2-4 months then reappears and becomes fully developed by about 12 months
Taste of a newborn
Can distinguish between all 4 tastes at birth (bitter, sour, sweet, salty) and show preference for sweet
Smell of newborn
Respond to unpleasant odors during first days after birth and discriminate between different odors by 2-7 days of age
Brain development in infancy/childhood
Significant development, especially of cortex, following birth and continues until early adolescence
Most neurons are already present at birth so what does continued development involve?
Growth of new dendrites which create new synapses and myelinization in which nerve fibers covered w/myelin that insulates neuron & increases speed of nerve impulses
Describe the predetermined pattern of myelinization?
1st month of life = primary motor cortex which accounts for ability to perform certain voluntary movements by 1 month (raise head when lying on stomach); Next area is primary sensory area responsible for initial processing of sensory info
When is most myelinization complete?
By end of second year of life though it continues at slower rate into early adolescence and may play role in cognitive changes that occur between ages of 5 and 7
Child's brain has reached about 60% of its adult weight by what age?
1 year old
Early motor development
Study table of major milestones in fine and gross motor development and average age at which they occur
How can early practice affect age at which certain motor milestones are achieved?
In cultures where training in walking occurs w/in few months after birth, children walk sooner; however, it appears that early training doesn't have an impact on long-term outcomes for basic skills but may affect more complex motor skills
McGraw example of motor training on fraternal twins with swimming and bike riding
Trained one twin and when he was proficient then trained twin brother; second twin caught up quickly; however, as adolescents and adults, first twin was generally more skilled and interested in activities than his brother
6 family risk factors for child psychopathology
(1) Low SES
(2) Overcrowding or large family size
(3) Severe marital discord
(4) Parental criminality
(5) Maternal psychopathology
(6) Placement of child outside the home
What did Rutter (1985) believe about child psychopathology and risk factors?
The greater number of risk factors, the greater the negative outcome; i.e., psychiatric risk 2% for children with 1 or no risk and 21% for those with 4 or more risks