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Flashcards in Early Physical Development Deck (26):

When is physical development most rapid?

During first 2 years of life


What kinds of bxs are learned in the 1st year of life?

Grasp, sit, crawl, stand, climb, & walk w/assistance


What kinds of bxs are learned by age 2?

Run, climb stairs, jump, throw a ball, scribble


What are the 4 major infant reflexes?

(1) Palmar grasp reflex, (2) Babinski reflex, (3) Moro or Startle reflex, and (4) Stepping reflex


What is a reflex?

Automatic physical response to specific kind of stimulation


Palmar grasp reflex

Grasps a finger pressed in palm


Babniski reflex

Extends big toe and spreads small toe when sole of foot is stroked


Moro or Startle reflex

When someone is supporting infant's body permits head to drop slightly or when loud, sudden sound, infant arches back, extends legs, and throws arms out as if grabbing for support


Stepping reflex

When infant held in upright position and soles of feet touch ground, infant makes stepping motions


When do reflexes disappear?

During first 6 months of life; experts think it's d/t gradual increase in voluntary control as cortex gains influence over behavior and suppresses subcortical reflexive responses


Early sensory skills

Newborns have a great deal of sensory ability at birth


Vision of newborn

Very limited at birth (20/600) though within few days (or even minutes) after birth prefer facial images to non-facial forms; can discriminate mom's face from strangers at 1 month; have color vision by 2-3 months; by 6 months, have some depth perception and visual acuity close to an adult


Hearing of newborn

Fetus hears sounds in uterus in last few months of development and newborn's hearing is only slightly less sensitive than an adult's; w/in days after birth, prefer sound of mom's voice and can distinguish between vowels "A" and "I"; Soon after birth exhibit sound or auditory localization (turn head toward sound) then this ability disappears between 2-4 months then reappears and becomes fully developed by about 12 months


Taste of a newborn

Can distinguish between all 4 tastes at birth (bitter, sour, sweet, salty) and show preference for sweet


Smell of newborn

Respond to unpleasant odors during first days after birth and discriminate between different odors by 2-7 days of age


Brain development in infancy/childhood

Significant development, especially of cortex, following birth and continues until early adolescence


Most neurons are already present at birth so what does continued development involve?

Growth of new dendrites which create new synapses and myelinization in which nerve fibers covered w/myelin that insulates neuron & increases speed of nerve impulses


Describe the predetermined pattern of myelinization?

1st month of life = primary motor cortex which accounts for ability to perform certain voluntary movements by 1 month (raise head when lying on stomach); Next area is primary sensory area responsible for initial processing of sensory info


When is most myelinization complete?

By end of second year of life though it continues at slower rate into early adolescence and may play role in cognitive changes that occur between ages of 5 and 7


Child's brain has reached about 60% of its adult weight by what age?

1 year old


Early motor development

Study table of major milestones in fine and gross motor development and average age at which they occur


How can early practice affect age at which certain motor milestones are achieved?

In cultures where training in walking occurs w/in few months after birth, children walk sooner; however, it appears that early training doesn't have an impact on long-term outcomes for basic skills but may affect more complex motor skills


McGraw example of motor training on fraternal twins with swimming and bike riding

Trained one twin and when he was proficient then trained twin brother; second twin caught up quickly; however, as adolescents and adults, first twin was generally more skilled and interested in activities than his brother


6 family risk factors for child psychopathology

(1) Low SES
(2) Overcrowding or large family size
(3) Severe marital discord
(4) Parental criminality
(5) Maternal psychopathology
(6) Placement of child outside the home


What did Rutter (1985) believe about child psychopathology and risk factors?

The greater number of risk factors, the greater the negative outcome; i.e., psychiatric risk 2% for children with 1 or no risk and 21% for those with 4 or more risks


Negative effects of prenatal and perinatal stress are not always irreversible and positive outcomes are possible IF...

They experience fewer stressors (e.g., family instability, maternal health problems, chronic poverty) following birth, have easy temperament, and are provided with stable support from parent or primary care giver.