Flashcards in Divorce Deck (23):
What factors affect impact of divorce on children?
Age and gender of child and custody arrangement
How are divorcing parents' parenting skills affected?
Inconsistent discipline (vacillate btw detached & highly punitive) & disintegration of normal household routines
Divorce gender effects on children
Males = more externalizing bxs; Females = more internalizing bxs; PLUS "sleeper effect" on girls in form of few problems following parents' separation then maladjustment in teen years
What makes negative effects of divorce on children more likely?
When parents continue to express conflict in front of their children
What is "diminished capacity to parent" and how long does it last?
State of disorganization the typically continues about 2 years after the divorce
How might mothers treat children during/after a divorce?
Show less affection overall, especially sons & may treat them more harshly
How might fathers treat children during/after divorce?
More indulgent & permissive
What is the trajectory of time spent with parent w/o physical custody over time?
Initially spend more time w/children with contact diminishing over time
What factors can moderate children's painful emotions & behavioral problems during period of divorce?
Age, gender, & custody arrangement
Age as a moderator of negative reactions to divorce examples
Preschool children have most negative outcomes in short run
Why might preschoolers have most negative reactions to divorce in the short run?
Limited cognitive abilities & can't understand reasons for divorce & prone to self-blame, reversion to immature bxs, & intense separation anxiety
Who might have worse long-term consequences than preschoolers?
Children who are older, i.e., 10 years after divorce, preschoolers at time of separation had fewer memories of the period while older children expressed painful memories & fears about own ability to have a happy marriage
Which gender did early research show suffered more severe short and long-term consequences?
Boys who often show increase in noncompliance, demandingness, & hostility
What do more recent studies of gender differences in terms of consequences of divorce show?
Girls also show negative effects immediately after divorce but more likely internalizing bxs (withdrawal, self-criticism) not as observable
"Sleeper effect" in girls after divorce
Preschool & elementary girls may have few problems initially; however, as adolescents show noncompliance, low self-esteem, emotional problems, & antisocial bx; these girls more likely to marry young, pregnant prior to marriage, choose psychologically unstable husband
How do custody arrangements following divorce impact children?
Those who live with same sex-parent may adjust better than opposite-sex parent, especially for boys; however, findings on this are inconsistent and some evidence that for adolescents of both sexes, father custody associated with higher rates of depression and anxiety, poorer grades, & other problems
How do children of divorced parents fare with regard to school performance?
Poorer grades and like school less, show more peer & bx problems at school, higher risk for dropping out
In terms of school performance, which gender & ages experience most negative effects?
Worse for boys than girls and for older children versus younger ones
What is a "low income effect" as it pertains to effects of divorce on school performance?
When family income is taken into account, relationships between divorce & measures of school performance tend to be weaker
What is a key contributor to children's adjustment following divorce?
Relationship between parents (negative effects resulting from open conflict as compared to parents who keep conflicts hidden or resolve issues amicably
What has research shown with respect to highly conflictual, intact families as compared to divorced, low income families?
Highly conflictual intact families are more poorly adjusted than those from divorced, low income families
What are mitigating factors for children of divorced parents?
Maintenance of positive relationship with both parents, extended family available as support system, positive school environment, and divorce not causing major upheaval in children's daily routines