Flashcards in Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development Deck (19):
Cog development involves adaptation through 2 complementary processes called _________?
Assimilation and accommodation
What are Piaget's 4 stages of cognitive development?
(3) Concrete Operational
(4) Formal Operational
Describe the sensorimotor stage [including ages, substages (if any), key achievement(s), etc]
Birth to 2 y.o.; Infants learn about world through senses and motor activity; 6 substages; key achievements are OBJECT PERMANENCE and DEFERRED IMITATION
Describe the preoperational stage [including ages, substages (if any), key achievement(s), etc]
Ages 2 to 7 y.o.; Characterized by rapid & extraordinary development of & increase in symbolic abilities/thought with thinking limited by EGOCENTRISM, MAGICAL THINKING, ANIMISM, and the INABILITY TO CONSERVE; tremendous strides in language and appearance of substitute pretend play (block becomes a truck) & sociodramatic play (playing daddy or mommy); INTUITIVE THOUGHT develops during this stage as well
Describe the concrete operational stage [including ages, substages (if any), key achievement(s), etc]
Ages 7 to 12 y.o.; Development of reversibility and decentration; ABILITY TO CONSERVE (fundamental properties of objects don't necessarily change when appearance changes) develops in a predictable and organized fashion during this stage; other achievements include TRANSITIVITY (ability to mentally sort objects) and HIERARCHICAL CLASSIFICATION (sort objects into hierarchies of classes & subclasses based on similarities & differences among the groups)
Describe the formal operational stage [including ages, substages (if any), key achievement(s), etc]
Ages 12 and up; Gains ability to process info in abstract and hypothetical ways; HYPOTHETICAL-DEDUCTIVE REASONING (ability to arrive at and test alternative hypotheses for observed events) and PROPOSITIONAL THOUGHT (ability to evaluate logical validity of verbal assertions w/o making reference to real-world circumstances)
What is adaptation?
Building cognitive schema through interactions with the environment
What is equilibration?
How assimilation and accommodation work together; Refers to continuous movement between cognitive equilibrium (using existing schemas to interpret reality, i.e., assimilation) and disequilibrium (when we notice info doesn't fit our current schemas).
What does disequilibrium force us to do?
Accommodate (modify schemas) so we can understand new info then we're back to equilibrium again
What are some characteristics of Piaget's stages?
They proceed sequentially with each new stage building on earlier one. They are invariant, i.e., emerge in fixed order for all children with no skipping of stages.
What are the 6 substages of sensorimotor stage? (Also study/review chart on page 23 in book)
(1) Basic Reflexes (birth-1 month)
(2) Primary Circular Reactions (1-4 mos)
(3) Secondary Circular Reactions (4-8 mos)
(4) Coordination of Secondary Schemes (8-12 mos)
(5) Tertiary Circular Reactions (12-18 mos)
(6) Transition to Symbolic Language (18-24 mos)
What 2 achievements are the result of the beginning of symbolic thought?
Object permanence and deferred imitation; symbolic thought allows child to use words, activities, and mental images to stand for objects
Object permanence begins at what age?
In sensorimotor stage, between 8-12 mos
"Inability to conserve" is due to which properties of preoperational thought?
CENTRATION (focus on one detail of situation to neglect of other important features) and IRREVERSIBILITY (inability to understand that actions can be reversed)
How does "conservation" develop and throughout which stage?
Develops sequentially throughout concrete operations stage in the following progression, i.e., conservation of number then length, liquid, mass, area, weight, and volume (an example of horizontal decalage)
What is horizontal decalage?
The sequential mastery of concepts w/in a single stage of development (i.e., how conservation develops throughout concrete operations stage)
What do adolescents sometimes do with their new powers of abstract reasoning in formal operations stage?
Construct grand religious, ethical, & philosophical theories; however, d/t limited life experience these are often unsophisticated and naive. Prone to formal operational EGOCENTRISM (rigid insistence that world can become a better place through implementation of their idealistic schemes)
What are 2 additional characteristics of formal operational/adolescent egocentrism?
Imaginary audience (belief that others are as concerned with/critical of adolescent's behavior as adolescent himself) and personal fable (belief that he/she is unique and indestructible)