Flashcards in Gender Identity Development Deck (16):
To what does Gender-role identity refer?
An individual's own sense of identification as male or female, distinguished from biological sex
At what age do children have an established gender-role identity?
3 years old; they can identify themselves as either boy or girl, recognize what is expected or appropriate of them as boys or girls, and note that others are same or opposite sex
Which has a greater impact on self-esteem in children, gender-role identity or biological sex?
Gender-role identity duh!
What is associated with highest levels of self-esteem in both boys and girls?
Androgyny (masculine & feminine preferences & characteristics); most studies support this though a few have found that masculinity, to a somewhat lesser extent, is associated with higher levels of self-esteem than femininity in both boys & girls
What trajectory do gender-role differences take from childhood into late adolescence/early adulthood to birth of first child and into middle-age?
Differences decrease in late adolescence & early adulthood then increase again once first child is born & primary responsibility for child rearing & domestic responsibilities maintained by woman then gender-role reversal starts in middle-age, with women becoming more independent, outgoing, active, & competitive and men becoming more dependent, sensitive, and passive.
What are the main theories of gender-identity development?
Social Learning Theory, Gender Schema Theory, Cognitive-Developmental Theory, Psychodynamic Theory
Describe Social Learning Theory
Kagan; focuses on social factors role on development of gender-role identity though primarily emphasizes modeling & reinforcement
What does Social Learning Theory propose?
It proposes that children first gain gender-typed bxs through rewards & punishments, modeling & imitation, & then develop gender-role identity
Describe Gender Schema Theory
Bem; children develop schema or conceptual frameworks about what is expected of them as girls or boys in sociocultural environment and these schemas influence how they perceive or think about the world then they apply those schemas to their own bxs (i.e., adopting attitudes/bxs to fit expectations of what girls or boys are "supposed to do")
How did Bem classify Gender Schema Theory?
As a social-cognitive approach b/c it emphasizes both social (sociocultural) factors & cognitive processes
Describe Cognitive-Development Theory
Kohlberg; emphasizes cognitive processes that underlie gender-role identity development
Across what three stages does gender-role identity parallel cognitive development?
Gender identity, gender stability, & gender constancy
Child recognizes he/she is either male or female; usually developed by age 2 or 3
The realization that gender identity is consistent over time (girls become women & boys become men); occurs after gender identity
Understanding that gender doesn't change b/c of changes in appearance, bx, or situations; around age 6-7