Flashcards in Developmental Psychopathology Deck (46):
Studies have shown that psychopathology is usually ________________________________.
The results of accumulating risk factors & several characteristics (like social responsivity and availability of consistent caregiver) reduce likelihood of psychopathology among high-risk children
With respect to the origins of psychopathology and its pathways, investigators view deviant & normal behaviors as....
Having similar origins and having several alternative/different developmental pathways
Give example of similar origins and different developmental pathways of psychopathology
Depression in adolescence can be primarily d/t genetic factors, to heightened stressors, or to low self-esteem exacerbated by normal adolescent developmental phenomena (e.g., concerns about physical appearance)
Fears in childhood -- content & stage of development
Fears change w/development
(1) Infancy = loud noises, strange objects, & strangers
(2) Fear of animals peaks at age 3
(3) Fear of dark at ages 4-5
(4) Fear of imaginary creatures after age 5
After age 5, number & intensity of fears decline
(5) Adolescence = Fears related to social & sexual situations
What percentage of children have fears that are excessive or unrealistic?
Only about 5% over age of 5
What is the most effective tx for excessive childhood fears?
Self-control procedure that involves making self-statements (i.e., I am brave and I can take care of myself in the dark) was MOST effective
What are some other effective txs for excessive childhood fears?
Modeling; contact desensitization; participant modeling
What is contact desensitization?
Variation on systematic desensitization where therapist models each step on anxiety hierarchy before exposing child to it (has been effective for snake phobia & fear of swimming pools)
What is participant modeling particularly useful for?
Tx children who fear animals and/or dental/medical procedures, who have test anxiety, & who display social withdrawal
Trajectory of aggression in childhood
Before age 1, boys & girls show similar levels but then boys become more aggressive & girls become less aggressive during next few years
What kind of aggression are boys more likely to engage in as compared to girls?
Boys = overt (verbal & physical) aggression
Girls = relational aggression
What are reasons for gender differences in aggression?
Not well understood, but likely due to combination of biological & environmental factors
What is an example of biological & environmental combination for aggression?
Prenatal androgen exposure (greater in boys than girls) increases disposition to aggression & environmental factors determine whether potential for aggression is realized
What are some environmental variables that have been linked to aggression?
Parenting style, cognitive factors, & television viewing
What kinds of homes do highly aggressive children often come from?
Parents are rejecting & lacking in warmth, very permissive or indifferent toward child's aggressiveness & rely on power assertive discipline as means of control
What kind of attachment pattern have studies shown aggressiveness to be associated with?
Insecure/resistant attachment pattern & lax monitoring of children's activities & behaviors
What did Patterson & colleagues develop with respect to aggression in childhood?
Coercive family interaction model of aggression
Describe the coercive model of aggression
Reflects social learning perspective & proposes that children learn to act aggressively as result of both imitation & rewards they receive for acting in aggressive ways
How do parents of highly aggressive often reinforce aggressive behavior?
By responding with attention or approval; they also model aggression through their parenting practices which typically involve high rates of commands combined with inconsistent, harsh, physical punishment
2 cognitive factors that may underlie aggression in children include
Social cognitions including perceptions of self-efficacy (ability to perform aggressive acts) and expectations about response outcomes (rewards/punishments that follow bx)
With respect to cognitive factors that may underlie aggression, how did aggressive children & non-aggressive children differ in one study?
Aggressive children reported aggressive acts were easier to perform, inhibiting them was difficult, and they felt confident that aggression would have positive outcomes including reducing aversive tx by others
What are the 5 steps of Dodge & Crick's cognitive model of aggression?
(1) Encoding of social cues
(2) Interpretation of social cues
(3) Response search
(4) Response evaluation
(5) Response enactment
Skillful processing at each step of cognitive model of aggression will lead to what?
Competent performance w/in situation whereas biased or deficient processing will lead to deviant & possibly aggressive, antisocial bx
Example of cognitive model of aggression
Aggressive children more likely than nonaggressive to interpret ambiguous acts of other as intentionally hostile
How does watching aggressive TV shows affect children's behavior?
The more violent/aggressive programs a child watches, the more aggressive the child becomes.
How does childhood exposure to TV violence affect them in adulthood?
Increased adult aggression in males and females with effect persisting when SES, intellectual ability, age, & variety of other parenting factors are controlled
What is the evidence about negative consequences for children already above average in terms of aggression?
Negative consequences are greater for these children; however, recent research indicates more childhood exposure to TV violence, greater childhood identification with same-sex aggressive TV characters, & stronger childhood belief that violent shows tell about life "just like it is" predicted more adult aggression REGARDLESS of initial aggressiveness of child
What is another finding related to TV violence that has to do with tolerating violent behavior in others?
Viewing TV violence increased tolerance for violent bx in others
How might effects of TV violence be mitigated?
By situational variables, like presence of adult while viewing it or if parents disapprove of aggression, encourage nonaggressive bxs, & limit viewing of violent shows
What are some interventions for aggressive children?
(1) Social skills training has been most effective including teaching alternative ways of resolving conflicts, using cognitive interventions to help them accurately interpret statements & bxs of others, & empathy training
What is an ineffective technique for managing aggressive children?
Cathartic approach where children given opportunities to safely vent their aggression (e.g., hitting a pillow); some studies suggest that aggression can actually be stimulated by this!
What is another effective intervention with aggressive children?
Patterson et al's behavioral modification program to alter way parents interact with their aggressive children; they are taught to reinforce desirable bxs, enforce rules consistently, & use time-out as alternatives to physical punishment
What factors place children at high-risk for psychopathology?
An accumulation of biological & environmental factors rather than any single risk factor
What are some examples of environmental factors that might put children at high-risk for psychopathology?
Risk increased with exposure to 2 or more of these factors including severe marital discord, low SES, large family size or overcrowding, parental criminality or psychiatric disorder, and placement of child outside the home
What are some variables show to increase children's resistance to psychopathology even if exposed to multiple risk factors?
Infants at high-risk for developmental difficulties (e.g., prematurity, low SES, family disorganization) less likely to develop problems when #1 -- they were temperamentally "easy" & socially responsive as infants and #2 -- had a consistent caregiver (mother, father, older sibling, or other relative)
Some conclusions related to relationship between chronic illness & psychological problems in children & adolescents
Limited research; #1 -- Children w/conditions involving brain fx have more bx problems & poorer social fx than children without; #2 -- Family fx, especially cohesion & support of child, positively correlated w/adjustment in chronically ill children, #3 -- Parental adjustment positively correlated w/adjustment in chronically ill children (specifically high levels of maternal depression associated w/poor adjustment), #4 -- Chronically ill boys (esp btw 6-11) at greater risk for bx problems than girls, with girls at greater risk for self-reported sxs of distress, #5 -- Adolescents at particularly high risk for not adhering to tx regimens (in part d/t concern about "being different" from peers; example, hemophiliacs may participate in full contact sports, diabetics may intentionally deviate from diet or neglect insulin injections
Issue of "what to tell the child" about his/her serious illness
Children told about their illness early have better psychological outcomes than those told later and in indirect way
What is best approach to discussing childhood cancer according to Bracken (1986)?
Tell child the truth in way consistent with child's age & level of understanding; provide opportunities to ask questions & discuss fears
With regard to fears (related to serious illness in children), what are children aged 4-5 usually most worried about as compared to school-aged children?
Children aged 4-5 most worried about mutilation; school-aged children most concerned about pain and death
What have recent findings about rate of adolescent drug use revealed?
Fluctuated over past few decades, but more recently among persons aged 12 & above is 8.3% which is a significant decline from rates in 1999.
What are the drugs most commonly used?
Tobacco, alcohol, marijuana
Rate of current drug use (2006 for tobacco, alcohol, marijuana) in ages 12-17 =
About 10% smoked cigarettes, 17% consumed at least 1 alcoholic drink (about 10% binge drinking & 3% drinking heavily), & about 7% used marijuana in past month
What are some long-term consequences of drug use by teens?
Teens who used particular drug in high school were likely to be using same drug in early 20's; also, cigarette smokers more likely to have respiratory problems & be depressed and illicit drug users more likely to have hx of marital & job instability and delinquent bxs than non-users
Current rates of binge drinking among young adults aged 18-25 are:
Binge drinking at 42% & rate of heavy drinking at 16% in previous month
Patterson focused on _________ factors that contribute to aggressiveness in children