EENT test Flashcards Preview

ST > EENT test > Flashcards

Flashcards in EENT test Deck (278):
1

purpose of the iris

regulate the amount of light entering the eye

2

the nerve that carries visual impulses to the brain is?

optic nerve

3

what does the anterior chamber of the eye contain?

aqueous humor

4

procedure to treat retinal detachment

scleral buckling

5

uses ultrasonic energy to fragment the lens during extracapsular cataract extraction

phacoemulsifier

6

place where the optic nerve leaves the eyeball?

blind spot

7

what cranial nerve is the optic nerve?

2

8

transparent anatomical structure known as the window of the eye?

cornea

9

term to describe the condition when the eyes are crossed?

strabismus

10

medications that dilate the eye pupils are?

mydriatics

11

mydriatic example

atropine

12

miotic example

miochol

13

contains the vitreous humor, a gelatenous substance which helps maintain the eyeball's shape

posterior chamber

14

left eye abbrev.

OS

15

right eye abbrev.

OD

16

incision made into the eardrum?

myringotomy, paracentesis, tympanotomy

17

procedure uses a graft to reapir a perforated eardrum to help restore or improve hearing?

tympanoplasty

18

an alligator forceps is used to place an ear tube in the tympanic membrane during a myringotomy?

true

19

describe the surgical specialty that treats diseases of the ear, nose, throat

otorhinolaryngology

20

general consideration during all ears, nose or throat procedures?

always have suction available

21

what is the organ of corti known as?

organ of hearing

22

what is the stapes a part of?

auditory ossicles

23

structure that connects the middle ear and throat, allowing the eardrum to vibrate freely?

eustachian tube

24

what cranial nerve is the acoustic nerve?

8

25

procedure in which an incision is made into the canine fossa of the upper jaw to expose the antrum and clean out the sinus cavity?

caldwell luc

26

name the 4 paranasal sinuses

maxillary, frontal, ethmoidal, sphendoidal

27

structure that serves as a boundary between the external auditory canal and the middle ear

tympanic membrane

28

name the procedure performed to remove a cholesteatoma

mastoidectomy

29

3 bones found in the middle ear

malleous, incus, stapes

30

washing hands for eye surgery?

wash powder from gloves, can act as a foreign body

31

suture for eye surgery

4-0 to 12-0

32

7 bones to form eye

sphenoid, ethmoid, superior maxillary, zygomatic, lacrimal and palate

33

extrinsic muscles

functions to move the eye in various directions and helps focus them together

34

conjunctivea

transparent membrane that lines the eyelide

35

eyelids

protects the globe and eye from light, injury

36

canthus

where eyelids meet

37

lacrimal caruncle

pink tissue mass at inner corner

38

lacrimal apparatus

produces and secretes tears

39

lacrimal gland

secretes tears

40

lacrimal ducts

carry tears from inner canthus to the lacrimal sac

41

lacrimal punctum

opening of duct

42

lacrimal sac

drains into the nose

43

cornea

allows light rays to pass to retina, window of the eye

44

sclera

white, provides support to the eye

45

choroid

prevents reflection of light within eyeball

46

ciliary body

affects accommodation of eye

47

iris

colored part of the eye

48

pupil

in center of eye, actually an opening

49

retina

receives images and sends to brain via optic nerve

50

optic disc

where the optic nerve enters the eye

51

macula

yellow spot in center of retina

52

fovea centralis

containing only cones

53

myopic

nearsighted

54

hyperopic

farsighted

55

anterior chamber

lies in front of the iris, filled with aqueous humor

56

canal of schlemm

drains excess fluid

57

glaucoma

increased pressure

58

lens

reflects light to retina

59

vitreous body

gelatinous mass, maintains shape of eyeball

60

what fills posterior 4/5 of eyeball?

vitreous body

61

optic nerve

carries visual impulses to the brain, 2

62

oculomotor nerve

moves eyeball and constricts pupil, 3

63

trochlear nerve

innervates the superior oblique muscle, 4

64

abducens

innervates the lateral rectus muscle, 6

65

opthalmic artery

main arterial supply to the orbit and globe

66

central retinal artery and vein

travels through the optic nerve

67

both eyes abbrev.

OU

68

excision of chalazion

hard tumor found on the inner or outer surface of the eyelid

69

repair of entropian

abnormal inversion of lower eyelid

70

repair of ectropian

abnormal sagging and eversion of lower eyelid causing excess tearing

71

blepharoptosis repair

abnormal drooping of upper eyelid caused by lack of muscle strength

72

lacrimal duct probing

obstruction or narrowing of lacrimal duct

73

dacryocystorrhinostomy

creation of a new tear passageway from the lacrimal sac directly into the nasal cavity for drainage

74

enucleation

removal of entire globe within insertion of a round implant into the socket

75

what is enucleation done for?

intraocular malignance

76

evisceration

removal of contents of the eye, leaving the sclera and attached muscles intact

77

excision of ptergium

triangular encroachment of conjunctiva which slowly proliferates to the front of the cornea

78

strabismus

both eyes are not directed or focused the same object

79

esotropia

one or both eyes turn intoward the nose

80

exotropia

one or both eyes turn out

81

hypertropia

one eye is higher than the other

82

lateral resection for strabismus

portion of muscle is excised and severed end is re attached at original insertion point

83

lateral muscle?

too long

84

mediat recession strabismus

muscle is severed at point of insertion and sutured further back

85

medial muscle?

too short

86

repair of eye lacerations

apposed with 10-0 suture or tissue

87

corneal transplant

thickened or opaque cornea caused by disease or degeneration

88

what is corneal transplant done for?

to improve vision using tissue donor graft

89

trephine

used to obtain full thickness corneal button 7-8 mm in diameter

90

lasik

curvature of cornea is re shaped using an excimer laser

91

cataract extraction

removal of the lens which has become opaque, restore vision

92

iridectomy

section of iris tissue is removed

93

trabeculectomy

incising a flap, creating a fistula

94

scleral buckling

band is placed around eye and secured with a silicone band

95

retinopexy

air or gas bubble is injected to press against detached retina

96

cryotherapy

causes inflammatory reaction

97

vitrectomy

removal of the vitreous humor

98

anterior vitrectomy

removing small portions of the vitreous from front structures of the eyes

99

posterior segment vitrectomy

removal of retained posterior segment intraocular foreign bodies

100

conjunctivitis

inflammation of the conjunctive commonly due to an infection

101

macular degeneration

loss of vision in the center of the visual field

102

nitrous oxide

nerve used on middle ear procedures

103

pinna (auricles)

projection part of the ear, collects sound waves

104

external auditory canal

directs sound waves

105

temporal bone

composed of squamous and mastoid air cells

106

tympanic membrane

eardrum, vibrates when sound waves strike it

107

malleus

transmits vibrations from eardrum to incus

108

stapes

transmits vibrations from incus to oval window

109

oval and round window

stapes transmits vibrations via fluid of inner ear though these membrans

110

semicircular canals

contain receptors that detect motion

111

cochlea

contains receptors for hearing

112

equilibrium

inner ear function

113

semicircular canals

organ of equilibrium

114

hearing loss factors

dieases, trauma, infection

115

conductive hearing loss

interference of soundwave transmission

116

sensori neural hearing loss

involves the inner ear or cochlear division of the acoustic nerve

117

tympanogram

measures vibrations of tympanic membrane

118

ENG

tests balance mechanism of inner ear

119

tuning fork

measures bone conduction

120

audiometry

tests hearing

121

serous otitis media

eustachian tube is blocked, middle ear pressure increases

122

acute otitis media

comes on quicker

123

chronic otitis media

recurrent middle ear infections, may causes hearing loss

124

path of sound transmission

occurs through bone, air and fluid conduction

125

vestibular nervve

equilibrium

126

cochlear nerve

hearing

127

what do the vestibular and cochlear nerve form?

8th cranial nerve

128

function of the nose

passageway for air between outside of body and the lungs

129

nares

cartilage structures which form the nose

130

posterior nares

opens directly into pharynx

131

alar cartilage nose

form the nares

132

nostrils

actual opening of nares

133

nasal septum

divides the 2 chambers

134

anterior nasal septum

cartilage

135

posterior nasal septum

bony attachment to ethmoid and volmer bones

136

meatus nose

nasal cavity passageway

137

turbinates nose

projections from the nasal lateral wall

138

names of nose turbinates

inferior, middle, superior

139

paranasal sinuses

air cavities lined with mucous membrane

140

function of paranasal sinuses

lighten weight of skull, secrete mucous

141

pharynx

passageway from base of skull to esophagus (throat)

142

nasopharynx

most superior- located behind nasal cavity

143

where are the tonsils and adenoids located?

nasopharynx

144

oropharynx

middle portion-ends at hyoid bone

145

where is the palatine tonils located?

oropharynx

146

lingual tonsils

located on posterior surface at base of tongue

147

laryngopharynx

inferior portion, larynx found here

148

larynx

voicebox, between trachea and pharynx

149

thyroid cartilage

adams apple

150

trachea

windpipe

151

endaural

through ear canal

152

transcanal

through ear canal

153

postauricular

behind the ear, most common, allows for better exposure

154

what do power drills use?

burrs only

155

nitrous oxide

should be avoided in ear surgery, may increase middle ear pressure

156

myringotomy with tube insertion
purpose/goal

incision into tympanic membrane entering a drainage tube
GOAL: decrease inner ear pressure and re establish drainage

157

glove rule for myringotomy

never touch tube with gloves

158

myringoplasty with fat graft

after ear tubes have been removed, fat taken out behind ear and placed over tympanic membrane defect

159

stapedectomy
purpose/goal

removal of stapes with insertion of prosthesis
GOAL: restore hearing by re establishing the linkage between incus and oval window

160

what is a stapedectomy indicated for?

progressive deafness due to otosclerosis

161

do they use a drill in stapedectomy?

yes

162

mastoidectomy
purpose/indication

removal of diseased bone of the mastoid process and mastoid space
indication: cholesteatoma

163

cholesteatoma

accum. of squamous epithelium in middle ear and mastoid

164

simple mastoidectomy

removal of diseased mastoid bone

165

modified radical mastoidectomy

removal of diseased mastoid bone and some of the ossicles and canal wall

166

what is used during mastoidectomy for precaution?

facial nerve monitoring to identify/preserve facial nerve

167

tympanoplasty
purpose/goal

restoration of a diseased tympanic membrane or middle ear structure due to chronic otitis media or cholesteotoma
GOAL: repair perforation in the TM

168

cochlear implant

sound is transformed into electrical system in the speech processor

169

bone anchored hearing aid

moderate to severe conductive hearing loss

170

semi implantable hearing aid

used in middle ear, directly stimulates the ossicles

171

vertigo

inappropriate perception of motion

172

menieres disease

affects hearing and balance to a varying degree

173

nasal septal reconstruction
purpose/goal

excision and resection of nasal cartilage
GOAL: correct deviated septum

174

cartilage for nasal reconstruction

save in saline moistened raytec in a safe place, don't throw away

175

treatment of epistaxis

surgery once ER tx has failed

176

nasal antrostomy

chronic maxillary sinusitis, caldwell luc used to treat it

177

caldwell luc procedure
purpose/goal

naso antral window is cut out of the maxillary bone to remove sinus mucosa
GOAL: clear away scar tissue from chronic infection

178

symptoms caldwell luc

headache, cough

179

sinus endoscopy
purpose/goal

excision of polyps, inflamed defects of the sinuses
GOAL: re establish ventilation by clearing the sinuses

180

ethmoidectomy
purpose/goal

removal of diseased portion of middle turbinate
GOAL: treat chronic infalmm. sinus disease

181

sphenoidectomy

creation of an opening into 1 or both sphenoidal sinuses

182

nasal plypectomy

removal of polyps from the nasal cavity

183

turbinectomy

removal of hypertrophied turbinates

184

local/topical anesthetics

tetracaine, cocaine, novocaine, xylocaine, marcaine

185

cocaine

vasoconstriction, not injected, tinted

186

adrenalin (epi)

rapid vasoconstrictor

187

neosynephrine

reduces swelling

188

mydriatics

dilate pupils
*phenylephrine

189

cycloplegic

prevents focusing dilate eye
*mydriacyl

190

miotic

constricts pupilss *miochol

191

corticosteroids

prevents normal inflamm. response
*celestone

192

dyes

fluorescein sodium, gentian violet

193

enzymatics

alpha chymar, chymotrypsin

194

lubricants

healon, viscot

195

irrigants

balanced salt solution, tis u sol

196

retrobulbar

used for cataract surgery, temporary eye paralysis

197

van lint

used for eyelid surgery, prevents squeezing of eyelid

198

o brien

eyelid surgery, prevents squeezing of eyelid

199

extraocular

procedures performed on the exterior surface of the eye or orbit

200

intraocular

procedures performed on the interior of the eye, will always use a microscope

201

when the eustachian tubes are blocked by hypertrophied adenoids, fluid accumulates in the middle ear from blood vessels located in the middle ear mucos?

true

202

instrument used to hold the mouth open during T&A

mcivor

203

function of the hurd dissector/pillar retractor?

retract tonsillar fossa

204

at what age does the adenoid tissue shrink and basically disappear?

17

205

what type of mid facial fracture is the most common?

le fort 1

206

what function does a mouth prop have?

keep jaw apart

207

what is the purpose of inserting a throat pack?

prevent aspiration of blood

208

when is the throat pack removed?

before transport

209

what procedures may be performed during dental restorations?

fillings, caps

210

name the layers of skin included in a full thickness skin graft?

epidermis, dermis

211

name the device used to expand the size of a split thickness skin graft

mesh grafter

212

what sterile liquid is placed on the donor skin site as a lubricant when a split thickness skin graft is taken

mineral oil

213

what is the medical term for the charred and pearly white appearance of tissue damaged by a 3rd degree burn

eschar

214

name the muscle that is commonly used as a pedicle graft during a breast reconstruction?

trans rectus abdominis

215

what is a stent dressing?

used on skin grafts to maintain contact

216

what methods can be used to adhere a skin graft to the recipient site?

suture

217

3 types of dermatoms and examples

knife-weck
battery-duval
electric-brownaire

218

autograft

patients own body

219

allograft

donors body

220

cosmetic procedure commonly performed to correct protruding external ears

otoplasty

221

eye surgeries are divided into extraocular and intraocular procedures. an example of an extraocular procedure would be?

removal of chalazion

222

types of surgeries done on the eyelids

blepharoplasty
entropian repair
correction for ptosis
ectropian repair

223

split thickness graft contains epidermis and a small portion of dermis?

true

224

during a skin grafting procedure, the donor site is where the graft will be placed on the paint?

false

225

rhinoplasty is the reconstruction of the nose for cosmetic purposes

true

226

name the congenital defect in which the palatine bones don't completely fuse during gestation

cleft palate

227

procedure where the nasal cartilage is excised and resected to correct a deviated septum

septoplasty

228

4 considerations when handling/cleaning microsurgical instruments

tips don't rest on anything
tips come together
don't crush
clean them good

229

surgery performed to correct microtia involves?

reconstruction of an absent portion of the ear

230

describe anomly syndactyly

abnormal connection of 2 or more fingers

231

type of dermatome used for skin grafts

brown air split thickness!!!

232

graft completelu detached from donor site and transferred to recipient site

free graft

233

graft with vessel attachments left intact and transferred to recipient site

pedicle flap

234

T&A
surgery/path/goal

excision of tonsils and adenoids, lingual tonsils not removed
PATH:chorinc tonsillitis, cancer
GOAL: excise infected tonsils

235

uvulopalatopharyngoplasty
surgery/goal

cut out some of the soft tissue of the palate and stitch it up
GOAL: treat intractable snoring

236

choanal atresia

congenital anomaly of the seophagus

237

dental extractions

removal of 1 or more tooth due to gum and or tooth disease

238

arch bars
purpose/goal

used to immobilize the jaw following jaw fracture
GOAL: repair fractured mandible

239

what must accompany pt to pacu after arch bars?

wire cutters

240

orbital floor fractuses

separates the eye from the maxillary sinus

241

orbital blowouts

involves 1 or more bones of the orbit

242

symptoms/goals of orbital fracture

double vision
GOAL: restore bone to correct anatomical position

243

repair of fractured zygoma

due to blunt trauma, depressed fracture, trimalar fracture

244

lefort 1

bilateral fracture of the maxilla

245

lefort 2

fracture extends into nasal and ethmoid bones

246

lefort 3

fractures are located high in the midface

247

craniofacial reconstruction

for craniofacial deformities, coronal flap

248

correction of retrognathism or prognathism

correction of jaw deformities

249

TMJ

usually treated with conservative treatment by a dentist

250

what shouldn't be used on fingers and toes?

tissue necrosis

251

dermatome

cutting instrument designed to remove a split thickness graft

252

1st degree burn

outside layer of epidermis, heals in a few days

253

2nd degree burn

epidermis and portion of dermis, blister, scar formation

254

3rd degree burn

destrcution of entire skin thickness extending into subq and or further, white skin with minimal pain

255

burn washing

patients with 3rd degree burn

256

composite graft

surgical reconstruction, highly vascular areas

257

rhytidectomy

removal of excess skin of face and neck area with tightening of underlying support structues
GOAL: improve appearance

258

repair of radial dysplasia

congenital defect commonly referred to as clubhand

259

how many classifications of deformities are there?

4

260

blepharoplasty

removal of excess skin and peri orbital fat of the upper and or lower eyelids
GOAL: aesthetic improvement

261

endoscopic brow lift

minimizes heaviness of the brow

262

malar implants

cheek implants

263

mentoplasty

cosmetic appearance of the chin

264

dermabrasion

smooth skin surfaces that have been damaged by scars, acne
use dermabrader

265

cleft lip

splitting of the upper lip
orbicularis oris muscle is aproximated

266

augmentation mammoplasty

implantation of breast prosthesis

267

reconstruction mammoplasty

after mastectomy, restors appearance of breast

268

capsulotomy

exaggearated scar response to the breast implant

269

mastopexy

correct breast ptosis

270

abdominoplasty

excision of excess abd skin

271

suction lipectomy

removal of excess fat deposits

272

tumescence irrigation

helps in breaking up fatty tissue and aid in hemostasis

273

polydactyly

duplication of digits, excess digit is excised

274

another name for adenoids?

pharyngeal tonsils

275

names of dermatomes

brown, zimmer, padgett hood

276

used to remove tonsils from the fossa during tonsillectomy

tonsil snar

277

abnormal drooping of the upper eyelid

ptosis

278

what isn't used to peform a turbinectomy?

percutaneous