Flashcards in EENT test Deck (278):
purpose of the iris
regulate the amount of light entering the eye
the nerve that carries visual impulses to the brain is?
what does the anterior chamber of the eye contain?
procedure to treat retinal detachment
uses ultrasonic energy to fragment the lens during extracapsular cataract extraction
place where the optic nerve leaves the eyeball?
what cranial nerve is the optic nerve?
transparent anatomical structure known as the window of the eye?
term to describe the condition when the eyes are crossed?
medications that dilate the eye pupils are?
contains the vitreous humor, a gelatenous substance which helps maintain the eyeball's shape
left eye abbrev.
right eye abbrev.
incision made into the eardrum?
myringotomy, paracentesis, tympanotomy
procedure uses a graft to reapir a perforated eardrum to help restore or improve hearing?
an alligator forceps is used to place an ear tube in the tympanic membrane during a myringotomy?
describe the surgical specialty that treats diseases of the ear, nose, throat
general consideration during all ears, nose or throat procedures?
always have suction available
what is the organ of corti known as?
organ of hearing
what is the stapes a part of?
structure that connects the middle ear and throat, allowing the eardrum to vibrate freely?
what cranial nerve is the acoustic nerve?
procedure in which an incision is made into the canine fossa of the upper jaw to expose the antrum and clean out the sinus cavity?
name the 4 paranasal sinuses
maxillary, frontal, ethmoidal, sphendoidal
structure that serves as a boundary between the external auditory canal and the middle ear
name the procedure performed to remove a cholesteatoma
3 bones found in the middle ear
malleous, incus, stapes
washing hands for eye surgery?
wash powder from gloves, can act as a foreign body
suture for eye surgery
4-0 to 12-0
7 bones to form eye
sphenoid, ethmoid, superior maxillary, zygomatic, lacrimal and palate
functions to move the eye in various directions and helps focus them together
transparent membrane that lines the eyelide
protects the globe and eye from light, injury
where eyelids meet
pink tissue mass at inner corner
produces and secretes tears
carry tears from inner canthus to the lacrimal sac
opening of duct
drains into the nose
allows light rays to pass to retina, window of the eye
white, provides support to the eye
prevents reflection of light within eyeball
affects accommodation of eye
colored part of the eye
in center of eye, actually an opening
receives images and sends to brain via optic nerve
where the optic nerve enters the eye
yellow spot in center of retina
containing only cones
lies in front of the iris, filled with aqueous humor
canal of schlemm
drains excess fluid
reflects light to retina
gelatinous mass, maintains shape of eyeball
what fills posterior 4/5 of eyeball?
carries visual impulses to the brain, 2
moves eyeball and constricts pupil, 3
innervates the superior oblique muscle, 4
innervates the lateral rectus muscle, 6
main arterial supply to the orbit and globe
central retinal artery and vein
travels through the optic nerve
both eyes abbrev.
excision of chalazion
hard tumor found on the inner or outer surface of the eyelid
repair of entropian
abnormal inversion of lower eyelid
repair of ectropian
abnormal sagging and eversion of lower eyelid causing excess tearing
abnormal drooping of upper eyelid caused by lack of muscle strength
lacrimal duct probing
obstruction or narrowing of lacrimal duct
creation of a new tear passageway from the lacrimal sac directly into the nasal cavity for drainage
removal of entire globe within insertion of a round implant into the socket
what is enucleation done for?
removal of contents of the eye, leaving the sclera and attached muscles intact
excision of ptergium
triangular encroachment of conjunctiva which slowly proliferates to the front of the cornea
both eyes are not directed or focused the same object
one or both eyes turn intoward the nose
one or both eyes turn out
one eye is higher than the other
lateral resection for strabismus
portion of muscle is excised and severed end is re attached at original insertion point
mediat recession strabismus
muscle is severed at point of insertion and sutured further back
repair of eye lacerations
apposed with 10-0 suture or tissue
thickened or opaque cornea caused by disease or degeneration
what is corneal transplant done for?
to improve vision using tissue donor graft
used to obtain full thickness corneal button 7-8 mm in diameter
curvature of cornea is re shaped using an excimer laser
removal of the lens which has become opaque, restore vision
section of iris tissue is removed
incising a flap, creating a fistula
band is placed around eye and secured with a silicone band
air or gas bubble is injected to press against detached retina
causes inflammatory reaction
removal of the vitreous humor
removing small portions of the vitreous from front structures of the eyes
posterior segment vitrectomy
removal of retained posterior segment intraocular foreign bodies
inflammation of the conjunctive commonly due to an infection
loss of vision in the center of the visual field
nerve used on middle ear procedures
projection part of the ear, collects sound waves
external auditory canal
directs sound waves
composed of squamous and mastoid air cells
eardrum, vibrates when sound waves strike it
transmits vibrations from eardrum to incus
transmits vibrations from incus to oval window
oval and round window
stapes transmits vibrations via fluid of inner ear though these membrans
contain receptors that detect motion
contains receptors for hearing
inner ear function
organ of equilibrium
hearing loss factors
dieases, trauma, infection
conductive hearing loss
interference of soundwave transmission
sensori neural hearing loss
involves the inner ear or cochlear division of the acoustic nerve
measures vibrations of tympanic membrane
tests balance mechanism of inner ear
measures bone conduction
serous otitis media
eustachian tube is blocked, middle ear pressure increases
acute otitis media
comes on quicker
chronic otitis media
recurrent middle ear infections, may causes hearing loss
path of sound transmission
occurs through bone, air and fluid conduction
what do the vestibular and cochlear nerve form?
8th cranial nerve
function of the nose
passageway for air between outside of body and the lungs
cartilage structures which form the nose
opens directly into pharynx
alar cartilage nose
form the nares
actual opening of nares
divides the 2 chambers
anterior nasal septum
posterior nasal septum
bony attachment to ethmoid and volmer bones
nasal cavity passageway
projections from the nasal lateral wall
names of nose turbinates
inferior, middle, superior
air cavities lined with mucous membrane
function of paranasal sinuses
lighten weight of skull, secrete mucous
passageway from base of skull to esophagus (throat)
most superior- located behind nasal cavity
where are the tonsils and adenoids located?
middle portion-ends at hyoid bone
where is the palatine tonils located?
located on posterior surface at base of tongue
inferior portion, larynx found here
voicebox, between trachea and pharynx
through ear canal
through ear canal
behind the ear, most common, allows for better exposure
what do power drills use?
should be avoided in ear surgery, may increase middle ear pressure
myringotomy with tube insertion
incision into tympanic membrane entering a drainage tube
GOAL: decrease inner ear pressure and re establish drainage
glove rule for myringotomy
never touch tube with gloves
myringoplasty with fat graft
after ear tubes have been removed, fat taken out behind ear and placed over tympanic membrane defect
removal of stapes with insertion of prosthesis
GOAL: restore hearing by re establishing the linkage between incus and oval window
what is a stapedectomy indicated for?
progressive deafness due to otosclerosis
do they use a drill in stapedectomy?
removal of diseased bone of the mastoid process and mastoid space
accum. of squamous epithelium in middle ear and mastoid
removal of diseased mastoid bone
modified radical mastoidectomy
removal of diseased mastoid bone and some of the ossicles and canal wall
what is used during mastoidectomy for precaution?
facial nerve monitoring to identify/preserve facial nerve
restoration of a diseased tympanic membrane or middle ear structure due to chronic otitis media or cholesteotoma
GOAL: repair perforation in the TM
sound is transformed into electrical system in the speech processor
bone anchored hearing aid
moderate to severe conductive hearing loss
semi implantable hearing aid
used in middle ear, directly stimulates the ossicles
inappropriate perception of motion
affects hearing and balance to a varying degree
nasal septal reconstruction
excision and resection of nasal cartilage
GOAL: correct deviated septum
cartilage for nasal reconstruction
save in saline moistened raytec in a safe place, don't throw away
treatment of epistaxis
surgery once ER tx has failed
chronic maxillary sinusitis, caldwell luc used to treat it
caldwell luc procedure
naso antral window is cut out of the maxillary bone to remove sinus mucosa
GOAL: clear away scar tissue from chronic infection
symptoms caldwell luc
excision of polyps, inflamed defects of the sinuses
GOAL: re establish ventilation by clearing the sinuses
removal of diseased portion of middle turbinate
GOAL: treat chronic infalmm. sinus disease
creation of an opening into 1 or both sphenoidal sinuses
removal of polyps from the nasal cavity
removal of hypertrophied turbinates
tetracaine, cocaine, novocaine, xylocaine, marcaine
vasoconstriction, not injected, tinted
prevents focusing dilate eye
constricts pupilss *miochol
prevents normal inflamm. response
fluorescein sodium, gentian violet
alpha chymar, chymotrypsin
balanced salt solution, tis u sol
used for cataract surgery, temporary eye paralysis
used for eyelid surgery, prevents squeezing of eyelid
eyelid surgery, prevents squeezing of eyelid
procedures performed on the exterior surface of the eye or orbit
procedures performed on the interior of the eye, will always use a microscope
when the eustachian tubes are blocked by hypertrophied adenoids, fluid accumulates in the middle ear from blood vessels located in the middle ear mucos?
instrument used to hold the mouth open during T&A
function of the hurd dissector/pillar retractor?
retract tonsillar fossa
at what age does the adenoid tissue shrink and basically disappear?
what type of mid facial fracture is the most common?
le fort 1
what function does a mouth prop have?
keep jaw apart
what is the purpose of inserting a throat pack?
prevent aspiration of blood
when is the throat pack removed?
what procedures may be performed during dental restorations?
name the layers of skin included in a full thickness skin graft?
name the device used to expand the size of a split thickness skin graft
what sterile liquid is placed on the donor skin site as a lubricant when a split thickness skin graft is taken
what is the medical term for the charred and pearly white appearance of tissue damaged by a 3rd degree burn
name the muscle that is commonly used as a pedicle graft during a breast reconstruction?
trans rectus abdominis
what is a stent dressing?
used on skin grafts to maintain contact
what methods can be used to adhere a skin graft to the recipient site?
3 types of dermatoms and examples
patients own body
cosmetic procedure commonly performed to correct protruding external ears
eye surgeries are divided into extraocular and intraocular procedures. an example of an extraocular procedure would be?
removal of chalazion
types of surgeries done on the eyelids
correction for ptosis
split thickness graft contains epidermis and a small portion of dermis?
during a skin grafting procedure, the donor site is where the graft will be placed on the paint?
rhinoplasty is the reconstruction of the nose for cosmetic purposes
name the congenital defect in which the palatine bones don't completely fuse during gestation
procedure where the nasal cartilage is excised and resected to correct a deviated septum
4 considerations when handling/cleaning microsurgical instruments
tips don't rest on anything
tips come together
clean them good
surgery performed to correct microtia involves?
reconstruction of an absent portion of the ear
describe anomly syndactyly
abnormal connection of 2 or more fingers
type of dermatome used for skin grafts
brown air split thickness!!!
graft completelu detached from donor site and transferred to recipient site
graft with vessel attachments left intact and transferred to recipient site
excision of tonsils and adenoids, lingual tonsils not removed
PATH:chorinc tonsillitis, cancer
GOAL: excise infected tonsils
cut out some of the soft tissue of the palate and stitch it up
GOAL: treat intractable snoring
congenital anomaly of the seophagus
removal of 1 or more tooth due to gum and or tooth disease
used to immobilize the jaw following jaw fracture
GOAL: repair fractured mandible
what must accompany pt to pacu after arch bars?
orbital floor fractuses
separates the eye from the maxillary sinus
involves 1 or more bones of the orbit
symptoms/goals of orbital fracture
GOAL: restore bone to correct anatomical position
repair of fractured zygoma
due to blunt trauma, depressed fracture, trimalar fracture
bilateral fracture of the maxilla
fracture extends into nasal and ethmoid bones
fractures are located high in the midface
for craniofacial deformities, coronal flap
correction of retrognathism or prognathism
correction of jaw deformities
usually treated with conservative treatment by a dentist
what shouldn't be used on fingers and toes?
cutting instrument designed to remove a split thickness graft
1st degree burn
outside layer of epidermis, heals in a few days
2nd degree burn
epidermis and portion of dermis, blister, scar formation
3rd degree burn
destrcution of entire skin thickness extending into subq and or further, white skin with minimal pain
patients with 3rd degree burn
surgical reconstruction, highly vascular areas
removal of excess skin of face and neck area with tightening of underlying support structues
GOAL: improve appearance
repair of radial dysplasia
congenital defect commonly referred to as clubhand
how many classifications of deformities are there?
removal of excess skin and peri orbital fat of the upper and or lower eyelids
GOAL: aesthetic improvement
endoscopic brow lift
minimizes heaviness of the brow
cosmetic appearance of the chin
smooth skin surfaces that have been damaged by scars, acne
splitting of the upper lip
orbicularis oris muscle is aproximated
implantation of breast prosthesis
after mastectomy, restors appearance of breast
exaggearated scar response to the breast implant
correct breast ptosis
excision of excess abd skin
removal of excess fat deposits
helps in breaking up fatty tissue and aid in hemostasis
duplication of digits, excess digit is excised
another name for adenoids?
names of dermatomes
brown, zimmer, padgett hood
used to remove tonsils from the fossa during tonsillectomy
abnormal drooping of the upper eyelid