Endocrinology/Rheumatology Flashcards Preview

COMLEX 2 > Endocrinology/Rheumatology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Endocrinology/Rheumatology Deck (39):
1

Addisonian Crisis

Fever, N&V, Abd pain Hypotension, Hyperpigmentation in palmar creases Polydipsia

2

What oral hypoglycemic agent is contraindicated for men with Cr >1.5 and women >1.4?

Metformin. Contraindicated in renal dz.

3

MEN I (Wermer's Syn)

Pituitary tumor Parathyroid hyperplasia Pancreatic Islet cell tumor

4

MEN IIA (Sipple Syn)

Medullary thyroid ca. Pheochromocytoma Parathyroidism

5

MEN IIB

Medullary thyroid ca. Pheochromocytoma Marfanoid

6

Hereditary Angioedema

C1 Inhibitor Deficiency --> non-inflamm. edema of face, limbs, genitals, colic Dx: Dec. C4

7

Familial Hypocalciuric HyPERcalcemia Dx:

AutoDom Ca-sensing-Receptor gene mutation wherein higher Ca2+ concentrations are needed to inhibit PTH release and Ca2+ reabsorption Dx: Ca >10 Hypocalciuria = Ca2+/Cr ratio 2.0

8

Insulinomas are usually suggested by what triad?

Whipple's triad: 1. hypoglycemia 2. low glucose 3. relief of S&S when glucose is raised

9

Labs seen in Whipple's triad

1. Low glucose 2. High insulin, C-peptide, and pro-insulin

10

What would C-peptide levels be in surreptitious injection of insulin?

Low C-peptide. (C-peptide means body was making insulin)

11

Hashimoto Thyroiditis (Hypothyroidism) keywords

Enlarged non-tender thyroid Widespread destruction of follicles Anti-TPO, eosinophilic Hurthle cells Inc. risk thyroid lymphoma and papillary thyroid ca.

12

What is it called when the thyroid is functioning normally but does not receive stimulus from the pituitary to produce more hormone?

2ndary hypothyroidism

13

Dermatologically, how would primary adrenal insufficiency manifest? Why does this happen?

Darkening of the skin. Low Na+, High K+ There is an increase in production of ACTH to compensate for lack of aldosterone production.

14

2ndary adrenal insufficiency and 2ndary hypothyroidism together suggests?

Pituitary insufficiency most likely d/t pituitary tumor

15

In Carcinoid Syndrome, what neurotransmitter is most responsible for diarrhea?

Serotonin

16

What is the most common cause of thyroid cancer? Keywords? Tx? AE?

Papillary thyroid carcinoma. Orphan annie eyes, psamomma bodies in follicular cells Tx: Radioactive Iodine AE: drymouth/sialadenitis

17

From where do most carcinoid tumors originate?

Small bowel

18

Lupus nephritis Lab values

normal CRP Elevated ESR Decreased serum C3 and C4

19

Glipizide, Glyburide, Glimepiride, Tolbutamide belong in what class? MOA? Adverse SE?

Sulfonylureas. Increase endogenous insulin secretion ! hypoglycemia, weight gain, sulfa allergy, disulfiram-like rxn for tolbutamide

20

Rosiglitazone, Pioglitazone belong in what class? MOA? Adverse SE?

Thiazolidinediones. Increase insulin sensitivity. ! Edema, weight gain, hepatotoxicity, bone loss, not for heart failure pts.

21

Acarbose, Miglitol belong in what class? MOA? Adverse SE?

Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitors. Decrease intestinal absorption of carbs ! Flatulence, hypoglycemia

22

Sitagliptin belongs in what class? MOA? Adverse SE?

DPP-4 Inhibitors. Inhibits degradation of GLP-1

23

Exenatide belongs in what class? MOA? Adverse SE?

Incretins. Is a GLP-1 agonist. ! Pancreatitis

24

How would Graves' Disease appear on RAIU?

diffuse (homogenous) uptake

25

When is methimazole allowable to treat hyperthyroidism in the pregnant woman?

 

What is a serious side effect?

2T (2nd trimester)

 

AE: Agranulocytosis

26

When is PTU allowable to treat hyperthyroidism in the pregnant woman?

1T (1st trimester). Generally, however, PTU is the one you pick in pregnancy.

27

Congenital Hypothyroidism S&S d/t?

poor feeding, constipatioin, large anterior fontanelle, macroglossia, umbilical hernia, MR d/t iodine deficiency, inborn errors of metabolism, thyroid dysgenesis

28

Myxedema Coma S&S Dx Tx?

hypothermia, bradycardia, hypoTN, hyponatremia, hypoglycemia Dx: Check cortisol prior to treating Tx: IV synthroid, Hydrocortisone

29

Thyroid Nodule Workup

A image thumb
30

Medullary Thyroid Ca. keywords

C-(calcitonin) Cells MEN 2A, MEN 2B

31

Milk Alkali Syndrome

ingestion of large amounts of Ca and alkali leading to hypercalcemia, fatigue, confusion, arrhythmias, constipation

32

Cushing's Signs and Symptoms Workup

A image thumb
33

Hypervitaminosis D (d/t granulomas) Labs

Increased Ca, Increased Phosphorus Decreased PTH 1,25 Vit D

34

Diabetes Workup

A image thumb
35

Adrenal Insufficiency Workup

A image thumb
36

Conn Syndrome Workup

A image thumb
37

Giant Cell Arteritis is often associated with what condition?

 

Tx of Giant Cell Arteritis

Polymyalgia Rheumatica

 

Tx: High dose Oral Steroids

38

Subacute (DeQuervain's) Thyroiditis S&S

Tx?

Post-URI with tender lump in neck on swallowing

Tx: NSAIDS

39

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is associated with what renal disease?

 

Tx with?

Renal Tubular Acidosis Type I (RTA I), a Non-AGap Met. Acidosis

 

Tx: Sodium Bicarb