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Flashcards in Neuro Deck (77)
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1

What causes Wallenberg Syndrome?

S&S Wallenberg Syndrome (Lateral Medullary Syndrome) RIGHT

- Vertebral a. or Post. Inf. Cerebellar A. stroke
- hoarseness

ptosis R eyelid
small R pupil
dysmetria with finger to nose testing on the R
loss of pinprick on the arm and leg L

2

What causes Wallenberg Syndrome?

S&S Wallenberg Syndrome (Lateral Medullary Syndrome) LEFT

- Vertebral a. or Post. Inf. Cerebellar A. stroke
- hoarseness

ptosis L eyelid
small L pupil
dysmetria with finger to nose testing on the L
loss of pinprick on the arm and leg R

3

Vestibular lesions cause

Vertigo and N&V

4

What does the Inferior cerebellar peduncle do?
What do lesions of the Inferior cerebellar peduncle cause?

- Connects cerebellum to medulla
- Ataxia and dysmetria

5

What does the lateral spinothalamic tract lesion at the medulla cause?

Contralat loss of pain and temp

6

What does the nucleus ambiguus do?
What does a lesion in this area cause?

- Brachial efferent motor neuron of the Vagus n. that controls larynx
- Hoarseness

7

Beck's (Ant. Spinal A.) Syndrome S&S

Bilat. flaccid paralysis at level of lesion
Bilat. loss pain and temp and spasms below level

8

What tracts or spinal cord areas are affected in ALS?

Corticospinal
Ventral Horn of spinal cord

9

Vasovagal syncope

triggered by physical/emotional stress
sweating, palpitations, nausea precede episode

"Posture, provoking, prodromal"

10

Lewy Body Dementia trigger words

Location?

Description?

round, dense cells with eosinophilia core surrounded by clear halos

in Basal Ganglia

parkinsonism with dementia and colorful hallucinations

11

Chromosome 21 encodes which Alzheimer's gene?

Amyloid beta precursor protein gene

12

Most common renal lesion in Tuberous Sclerosis (Auto Dom)

Angiomyolipoma

13

Alzheimer Genes

Presenelin I, II (chrom 14, I)
APP (21)
Susceptibility (APOe4)

14

Vascular Dementia keywords

lacunar infarcts
stepwise deterioration
lateralizing signs (spasticity, hemiparesis, ataxia, pseudobulbar palsy)

15

Pick Disease/Frontotemporal dementia keywords

MAPT gene - Tau protein buildup
early onset personality changes
Frontal and Temporal lobe atrophy

Tx: Anticholinesterase inhibitors [Aricept, Tacrine, Rivastigmine]

16

Temporal Lobe epilepsy keywords

strange smells, lilliputian hallucinations

17

Creutzfeldt Jakob Dz. keywords

rapid prion accumulation
myoclonus
sharp waves on slow EEG

18

Global Aphasia (both Broca and Wernicke's Areas affected)

not fluent/no spontaneous speech
no repetition/comprehension

19

Wernicke Aphasia (superior temporal gyrus of temporal lobe)

fluent
no repetition/comprehension

Wernicke's wordy but makes no sense

20

Broca Aphasia (inferior frontal gyrus of frontal lobe)

not fluent
no repeat
intact comprehension

Broca's broken boca

21

Guillain Barre attacks which nerves?

Peripheral nerves

22

Multiple sclerosis keywords

Multiple white matter hyperintensities
Oligoclonal bands in CSF
Tx: IgG, B-IFN, Natalizumab

23

Cerebral AutoDom Angiopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL)

Tetrad of: psychiatric disturbance, dementia, multiple white matter strokes, and migraines with aura

24

Bacterial Meningitis CSF findings

Elevated WBCs (1,000 - 20,000 cells/ml)
PMNs
Low Glucose
High Protein

25

Thalamic Hemorrhage (common site of parenchymal hypertensive hemorrhage)

Motor and sensory loss, eye deviation away from side of lesion
Worsening numbness opposite side of lesion
Smoking and HTN hx.
Miotic and nonreactive pupils with gaze preference to opposite side of lesion
4/5 Strength opposite side of side
may extend down to hit reticular activating system to cause coma

26

Vertebral A. Occlusion

leads to infarction of medulla
medial medulla --> flaccid then spastic contralateral hemiparesis, ipsilat tongue paralysis
lateral medulla --> Wallenburg syn.

27

Primary Progressive Aphasia

Variant of Frontotemporal Dementia:

Erosion of language skills (difficulty finding words and producing speech) with preservation of cognitive and behavioral function

28

CSF Findings in Viral Meningitis

Increase Mononuclear cells
Normal Glucose
Mildly elevated Protein

29

Tx. CNS Melanoma

Radiation therapy plus stereotactic radiosurgery

30

Functions of the Hypothalamus

TAN HATS

Thirst and water balance
Anterior pituitary
Neurohypophysis releases hypothalmic hormones

Hunger
Autonomic regulation
Temp regulation
Sexual urge