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Flashcards in Enlightenment Deck (55):
1

What was the MAJOR idea of the enlightenment?

Emphasis on reason
Society and laws should be based on human reason

2

Who were some individuals that helped to reform society along the lines of reason?

Philosophes

3

The enlightenment view of society rested on?

Assumptions about the "natural state" of human beings

4

Describe the beliefs or ideas of Thomas Hobbes

Asserted that self interest motivated all human behavior
Royalist; advocate for absolutism
Humans are equal in that they can destroy each other

5

Leviathan (1651)

Hobbes
Govt requires absolute pwr which it acquired by entering into an unbreakable contract the sacred covenant with the people

6

When did enlightenment take place?

18th century

7

What were 4 major principles for philosophes?

Reason
Secularism
Equality
Progress

8

What are some beliefs of the philosophes?

All agree on liberalism
Try to apply ideas from scientific revolution to other things besides science
Believed there should be a gradual acceptance of these ideas

9

Describe the reason principle for philosophes?

Strong belief in trying to understand things
Exemplified that we needed reason for everything
Reason at the expense of emotion
World is inherently noble

10

Describe the secularism principle of the philosophes?

Not anti religious just believe that religious institutions should not intrude
Theology doesn't deal with politics
Deism
-belief in afterlife based on merit -don't believe in orig sin

11

Describe the equality principle of the philosophes?

Don't advocate equality between the classes
Limited monarch/govt is the best
Don't like idea of pure democracy(wut r u doin givin illiterate ppl rite 2 vote ughhh)

12

Describe the progress principle of the philosophes?

Progress is a byproduct of reason

13

Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1689-1690)

John Locke
Argued that human are born with a tabula rasa
Behavior of man can be improved through the envt
Contradicted traditional Christian notion that humans were born corrupt and sinful

14

Who were 2 major influences in the enlightenment?

Newton and Locke

15

Second Treatise

Locke
Theory of private property can be seen
To ensure productivity of man God established a natural right to property

16

According to John Locke how is private property created?

When one mixes a common resource with his individual labor

17

Wealth of Nations (1776)

Adam Smith
Invisible hand; supply & demand
Law of supply & demand are byproducts of human self interestedness
Advocated laissez faire economics

18

What is laissez faire economics?

Government should not interfere or alter the natural laws of an economy (such as trying to put a tax or tariff on foreign products)

19

The Vindication of the Rights of Women (1792)

Mary Wollstonecraft
Argued that reason was the basis of moral behavior in all human beings men AND WOMEN

20

Royalists vs Parliamentarian

R- supported traditional power & privilege of aristocracy
P- sought to limit pwr and privilege of aristocracy & King

21

Who is an example of a royalist?

Hobbes
Govt had absolute power over ppl

22

Who is an example of a parliamentarian?

Locke
Pwr of govt came from consent of the ppl
-use was limited to protecting pols natural rights (right to property)

23

Crimes and Punishment (1764)

Cesare Beccaria
Carried Lockes line of thinking
Purpose of punishment = rehabilitate & reintegrate the individual into society

24

Spirit of the Laws (1748)

Baron de Montesquieu (expanded on locke's theory)
Stressed the importance of the rule of law
Outlined a system where govt was divided into branches in order to check and balance its power

25

Thomas Jefferson

Only legit role of govt = guarantee citizens unalienable rights to life liberty and pursuit of happiness

26

What are physiocrats?

Believed that Land = wealth
And agriculture ^ that wealth

27

What is enlightened despotism?

Powerful monarchs of Europe once educated in enlightenment ideals would use their power to reform and rationalize society

28

Give some examples of enlightened despots

Fredrick II (the Great) of Prussia

Joseph II of Austria

Catherine II (the Great) of Russia

29

What were some reforms that Fredrick II (the Great) of Prussia instituted?

Abolished serfdom
Instituted religious toleration

30

What were some reforms that Joseph II of Austria instituted?

Legislated religious toleration for Lutherans and Calvinists
Abolished serfdom
Passed laws that liberalized rules governing the press

31

What were some reforms that Catherine II (the great) of Russia instituted?

Read the philosophes
Befriended Voltaire and Diderot

32

How did enlightened despotism actually turn out to be?

Use of certain enlightenment ideals to help monarchs modernize and reform certain govt and social institutions
Purpose = centralizing and strengthening their grasp on power

33

Who were examples of physiocrats?

Francois Quesnay
Adam Smith

34

What were salons during the enlightenment? Where did they flourish?

A place where both men and women gathered to educate themselves about and discuss the new ideas of the age in privacy and safety

35

What did the term salon refer to before the enlightenment?

Room in aristocratic homes where family and guests gathered for leisure activities

36

Through what did women make their most direct contribution to the enlightenment?

Through salons

37

What was the Masonic Lodge?

Fraternities of aristocratic and middle class men gathered to discuss alternative to traditional beliefs
They were run along democratic principles

38

Who are some influential masons of the 18th century?

Duke of Montagu (England)
Voltaire & Mozart (France)
Benjamin Franklin (America)

39

What was the most prevalent form of religious belief among the philosophes?

Deism

40

Historical and Critical Dictionary (1697)

French religious skeptic Pierre Bayle
Argued that all dogma should be considered false if it contradicted conclusions based on clear and natural reasoning

41

Why did David Hume reject Christianity?

Bc he argued that Christianity required a belief in miracles
And that the notion of miracles was contradicted by human reason

42

Most famous skeptic of the enlightenment?

Voltaire
He raised satire to art form & used it to criticize those institutions that promoted intolerance and bigotry

43

Letters Concerning the English Nation (1733)

Voltaire
Compared the constitutional monarchy, rationalism and toleration found in England to absolutism, superstition and bigotry of France

44

Candide (1759)

Voltaire
champion of individual rights.
"I do not agree with a word you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it!"
leading advocate of Enlightened Despotism.

45

Newtonian Approach

Analysis
The breakdown of complex things into simpler components

46

Jean Jacques Rosseau

"Father of Romanticism".
he differed from the other philosophes, esp. Locke:
rejected science and reason; go with your feelings

47

The Social Contract (1762)

"Man is born free and everywhere he is in chains"
Law is expression of The General will

48

Cartesian approach

Intelligibility
Attempt to fashion intelligible explanations of natural phenomena

49

What was the dominant art style of the enlightenment?

Rococo

50

Examples of Rococo

Sanssouci for Fred the great
Antoine Watteau's Music Party
The swing by Jean Honoré Fragonard

51

Encyclopedia (1751-1772)

Denis Diderot & Jean le Rond d'Alembert
Goal = overturn barriers of superstition and bigotry
Contribute to progress of human knowledge

52

Who twice banned the publication of the encyclopedia? Why?

Louis XV bc it was causing "irreparable damage to morality & religion"

53

Emile (1762)

Rousseau
Humans were born essentially good and virtuous but they were easily corrupted by society

54

What was utilitarianism?

Idea that laws created for the common good and not for special interests
The greatest good for the greatest number
Pleasure = good Pain = evil
Separation of church and state

55

Who developed utilitarianism?

Jeremy Bentham