Flashcards in The Scientific Revolution Deck (44):
What was science like prior to the 16th century?
Employed logic and reasoning
Everything made of 4 elements (earth, water, fire, air)
What were some reasons for the scientific revolution?
Ppl wanted more accurate star charts
Ppl wanted more accurate calendars
Ppl became interested in nature
What was the geocentric theory?
The earth is the center of the universe
Who developed the geocentric theory?
Why was the geocentric theory accepted by everyone in old science?
It made logical sense
MAINLY it confirmed the Christian theological doctrine that the universe was perfect(ly created by God)
What new institutions were developed during this time period?
Royal societies & academies
Why was Copernicus called by the church? To do what?
He was called so that he could help figure out better calendars
Since the calendars were so out of sync with the seasons
What happened when Copernicus was asked to help by the church?
He developed the heliocentric theory (he made this with no observation)
What is the heliocentric theory?
The idea that the sun is the center of the universe
What was "On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres" (1543)?
Wass able to publish this so long as he stated that the heliocentric theory was a hypothetical model and that it WAS NOT A TRUE MODEL
Why didn't the church like the heliocentric theory?
The church didn't like heliocentric model bc it essentially proved what the church had been saying all these years as wrong
Why was Copernicus branded a heretic?
Because he stated in "On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Sphere" that his theory was simply a theory and that it wasn't necessarily true
Why did Brahe disagree disagree with Copernicus?
Brahe believed in geocentrism
Copernicus believed in heliocentrism
What were Brahe's contributions?
Wrote what he observed
Believed in geocentrism
What was the relation between Brahe and Kepler?
Kepler was Brahe's apprentice
What does Kepler do with Brahe's observations?
He uses them to reject the geocentric theory
What were Johannes Kepler contributions?
Developed the laws of planetary motion (elliptical orbits)
What were Galileo Galilei contributions?
Perfected the telescope which he used to observe moons & planets
Contradicts that the universe is perfect
What were Francis Bacon's contributions?
Father of empiricism
Developed inductive reasoning
Purpose of science = human improvement
Who provided true empirical evidence of heliocentrism?
How did Galileo prove that the universe was not perfect?
With the telescope he saw the craters on the moon which proved that the universe technically wasn't perfect if the moon wasn't a perfect circle
What happened when Galileo contradicted the perfection of the universe?
The church didn't like this (obvs) so they send the inquisition in 1633 and Galileo recants everything "heretical" he said
What were Newton's contributions?
Principia Mathematica (1687)
Universe is finely tuned watch and God is the watchmaker
What was the Principia Mathematica (1687)?
Synthesized everyone's contributions to science
What were Rene Descartes contributions?
Skepticism; doubt everything
"Cogito, ergo sum"
Wrote the Discourse on Method
What does "cogito, ergo sum" mean?
I think therefore I am (Descartes)
What is Cartesian dualism?
The idea that there are two aspects to us: the body & the mind
What is the Discourse on Method?
Descartes' attempt to explain his method of reasoning through even the most difficult of problems.
What were some affects of the Scientific Revolution on Blaise Pascal?
What are pensées?
Where pascal examines reason and faith
What is Pascal's Wager?
Created by pascal
Religion can't be proven
What were the affects of the scientific revolution on Spinoza?
mind and matter are extensions of the infinite substance of God.
What is deism?
God is seen as the watchmaker but the world works without God's constant intervention
DONT believe in miracles
What were some reasons why science constrained women even more than before during the scientific revolution?
Monasteries and universities consisted of all men
Biology : sexual dimorphism
What is sexual dimorphism?
That male bodies are different from female bodies in that each body is suited for a different purpose
Who were some exceptions of women exclusion during the scientific revolution?
Noble women and artisan women
What was the royal society of London?
Established in 1662 by King Charles 2
Sought and received patronage from the king by emphasizing the prestige and practical applications of their discoveries
Used by King to improve scientific knowledge
Who was Robert Boyle?
Who was William Harvey?
Anatomy, botany (study of plants)
Who is an example of a NOBLE woman from the scientific revolution?
Who was the only woman in the 17th century to meet with the Royal Society of London? Did they like her? If no explain why
Bc she was openly critic
Who is an example of an artisan women during the scientific revolution?
What achievements did Maria Winkelman contribute?
Husband was an astronomer and she worked with him
They work together to make a calendar
She found a comet but credit goes to husband
Eventually gets credit in 1930