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Flashcards in The Scientific Revolution Deck (44):
1

What was science like prior to the 16th century?

Qualitative
Employed logic and reasoning
Lack experimentation
Geocentric theory
Everything made of 4 elements (earth, water, fire, air)

2

What were some reasons for the scientific revolution?

Ppl wanted more accurate star charts
Ppl wanted more accurate calendars
Ppl became interested in nature

3

What was the geocentric theory?

The earth is the center of the universe

4

Who developed the geocentric theory?

Ptolemy

5

Why was the geocentric theory accepted by everyone in old science?

It made logical sense
MAINLY it confirmed the Christian theological doctrine that the universe was perfect(ly created by God)

6

What new institutions were developed during this time period?

Royal courts
Royal societies & academies
New universities

7

Why was Copernicus called by the church? To do what?

He was called so that he could help figure out better calendars
Since the calendars were so out of sync with the seasons

8

What happened when Copernicus was asked to help by the church?

He developed the heliocentric theory (he made this with no observation)

9

What is the heliocentric theory?

The idea that the sun is the center of the universe

10

What was "On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres" (1543)?

Copernicus
Wass able to publish this so long as he stated that the heliocentric theory was a hypothetical model and that it WAS NOT A TRUE MODEL

11

Why didn't the church like the heliocentric theory?

The church didn't like heliocentric model bc it essentially proved what the church had been saying all these years as wrong

12

Why was Copernicus branded a heretic?

Because he stated in "On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Sphere" that his theory was simply a theory and that it wasn't necessarily true

13

Why did Brahe disagree disagree with Copernicus?

Brahe believed in geocentrism
Copernicus believed in heliocentrism

14

What were Brahe's contributions?

Wrote what he observed
Believed in geocentrism

15

What was the relation between Brahe and Kepler?

Kepler was Brahe's apprentice

16

What does Kepler do with Brahe's observations?

He uses them to reject the geocentric theory

17

What were Johannes Kepler contributions?

Developed the laws of planetary motion (elliptical orbits)

18

What were Galileo Galilei contributions?

Perfected the telescope which he used to observe moons & planets
Contradicts that the universe is perfect

19

What were Francis Bacon's contributions?

Father of empiricism
Developed inductive reasoning
Purpose of science = human improvement

20

Who provided true empirical evidence of heliocentrism?

Galileo;

21

How did Galileo prove that the universe was not perfect?

With the telescope he saw the craters on the moon which proved that the universe technically wasn't perfect if the moon wasn't a perfect circle

22

What happened when Galileo contradicted the perfection of the universe?

The church didn't like this (obvs) so they send the inquisition in 1633 and Galileo recants everything "heretical" he said

23

What were Newton's contributions?

Calculus
Principia Mathematica (1687)
Universe is finely tuned watch and God is the watchmaker
Universal gravitation

24

What was the Principia Mathematica (1687)?

Newton
Synthesized everyone's contributions to science

25

What were Rene Descartes contributions?

Skepticism; doubt everything
"Cogito, ergo sum"
Deductive reasoning
Cartesian Dualism
Wrote the Discourse on Method

26

What does "cogito, ergo sum" mean?

I think therefore I am (Descartes)

27

What is Cartesian dualism?

Descartes
The idea that there are two aspects to us: the body & the mind

28

What is the Discourse on Method?

Descartes' attempt to explain his method of reasoning through even the most difficult of problems.

29

What were some affects of the Scientific Revolution on Blaise Pascal?

Pensées
Pascal's wager

30

What are pensées?

Where pascal examines reason and faith

31

What is Pascal's Wager?

Created by pascal
Religion can't be proven

32

What were the affects of the scientific revolution on Spinoza?

mind and matter are extensions of the infinite substance of God.

33

What is deism?

God is seen as the watchmaker but the world works without God's constant intervention
DONT believe in miracles

34

What were some reasons why science constrained women even more than before during the scientific revolution?

Monasteries and universities consisted of all men
Biology : sexual dimorphism

35

What is sexual dimorphism?

That male bodies are different from female bodies in that each body is suited for a different purpose

36

Who were some exceptions of women exclusion during the scientific revolution?

Noble women and artisan women

37

What was the royal society of London?

Established in 1662 by King Charles 2
Sought and received patronage from the king by emphasizing the prestige and practical applications of their discoveries
Used by King to improve scientific knowledge

38

Who was Robert Boyle?

Chemistry

39

Who was William Harvey?

Anatomy, botany (study of plants)

40

Who is an example of a NOBLE woman from the scientific revolution?

Margaret cavendish

41

Who was the only woman in the 17th century to meet with the Royal Society of London? Did they like her? If no explain why

Margaret Cavendish
NOoo
Bc she was openly critic

42

Who is an example of an artisan women during the scientific revolution?

Maria Winkelman

43

What achievements did Maria Winkelman contribute?

Husband was an astronomer and she worked with him
They work together to make a calendar
She found a comet but credit goes to husband
Eventually gets credit in 1930

44

What are cunning folk?

Used magic to help village
Had pwr and importance in the village