Flashcards in Reformation Deck (47):
Summarize the reformation.
In the 16th century an attempt to reform the Christian church developed into a Protestant movement that shattered the religious unity of Europe.
How was the Anglican Church or Church of England developed?
Henry 8th used the Protestant movement as an excuse to break with the papacy in Rome so that he could create and English national church
How did the Catholic Church respond to the Protestant movement?
With reforms and aggressive countermeasures
What was one reason why ppl felt the need for a religious reformation?
The papacy in Rome was widely seen to be more concerned with building and retaining worldly power & wealth than in guiding souls to salvation.
What was one way in which the papacy in Rome was widely seen to be more concerned with worldly power & wealth than in guiding souls to salvation?
The selling of indulgences -ppl paid to get rid of their sins
What were 5 abuses conducted by the Catholic Church?
What is simony?
Buying and selling of benefices (church offices)
What is pluralism?
Being able to have more than 1 benefice at a time
What is absenteeism?
When the bishop doesn't show up in their city
What is nepotism?
Giving positions to family or friends
-could be bc they owed somebody something or they want something from someone
How did Pope Leo X change the idea of indulgences?
He made it so that you could also buy indulgences for your dead relatives.
Why does Pope Leo X adjust the idea of indulgences?
So that he could have money to rebuild the St.Peters Basilica
Who was Johan Tetzel?
An indulgence preacher (salesman) sent out by Pope Leo X
Big advantage that Martin Luther had that others didn't
The printing press
How did Martin Luther become so devoted to religion?
He had a fear of storms so one day there's a storm so he prays to a saint saying that if he lives through the storm he will devote his live to God.
What is the 95 theses?
Written by Luther,
An economic argument about indulgences and why it's incorrect
3 main concepts of luther's belief
(Martin Luther) "by scripture alone" his belief that the only authority for Christians is the bible (old and new testaments)
-claimed that the only 2 sacraments are baptism & communion bc they're the only ones found in the bible
(Martin Luther) "by faith alone" his belief that salvation was achieved by faith alone
(Martin Luther) "by grace alone" only by god's grace choosing you do you receive salvation
What was the priesthood of all believers?
One of luther's concept that argued that all true believers received God's grace and were therefore priests in God's eyes
Why did nobility find Luther appealing?
Luther was good friends with Fredrick of Saxony (a Prince) and the nobility of the GERMAN districts owed their allegiance to Fredrick
What are 3 of Luther's famous pamphlets?
-"The Freedom of the Christian Man"
-"Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation"
-"On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church"
Importance of "The Freedom of the Christian Man"
Luther encouraged common men to obey their Christian conscience and respect those in authority who seemed to possess true Christian principles
Importance of "Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation"
Appealed to the German princes' desire for both greater unity & power & to their desire to be out from under the thumb of an Italian pope
Importance of "On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church"
Attacked the traditional 7 sacraments replacing them with only 2
What was the Peace of Augsburg? What did it do?
(1555) GERMAN princes made it clear they no longer bowed down to Rome
It established "he who rules; his religion" & signaled to Rome that the German princes would not go to war with each other over religion.
Where did Protestantism spread successfully?
Netherlands, Scandinavia, Scotland and England
Where did the Protestant movement encounter more difficulty?
Eastern and Southern Europe
What was the Diet of worms?
Luther was told it was a debate but it wasn't it was a trap the church asks if he wants to recant his sins , Luther says no. so Luther is excommunicated and outlawed by the church (empire puts bounty on Martin Luther)
Where was there the most bloodshed when it came to Protestantism?
France bc in 1534 Protestantism was declared heretical and illegal
Term for French Protestants
What was the peasant revolt? When was it?
(1524-1525) peasants were pushing for social equality
What did Luther do in response to the peasant revolt?
He published another pamphlet "Against the Murdering & Robbing Horde of Peasants" telling the princes that it's their duty to crush the peasant revolt
Why didn't Luther want the peasant revolt to succeed?
He didn't want to start a social revolution he believed that it was strictly a spiritual revolution
"Cuius regio, eius religio"
"He who rules; his religion"
Describes Zwingli's reformation?
Leader of Swiss reformation (militant)
Followers extremely hardcore and violent about their ideas
Reform = if it is literally in the bible then you can use it
What was the Marburg Colluquy?
The event in which Luther & Zwingli get together and argue about co substation and transubstantiation eventually respecting each other's belief
What was the edict of Nantes?(1598)
Royal edict which established the principle of religious toleration in France
Consubstantiation v. Transubstantiation
Ml v Catholic Church
Accepts Lutheran theology however mainly emphasized on predestination
The idea that God has predetermined which people will be saved
What helped spread Calvinist ideas?
The Genevan Academy
According to Calvinists there are 2 kinds of people
1) elect - those predestined to be Calvinist
2) everybody else
How were Calvinist churches organized?
Pastors (take what was studied in scripture & preach the word)
Doctors (studied scripture)
Deacons (coordinated charities)
Elders (disciplined; wrote discipline for church & community)
Leader of Calvinist movement
French man who rejected Catholicism