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Flashcards in French Revolution Deck (48):
1

What are the three phases of the French Revolution?

Moderate phase
Radical phase
Thermidor phase

2

Who was Louis XVI financial advisor?

Turgot

3

What time was the moderate phase of the revolution?

1789-1791

4

Moderate phase of the revolution

Bourgeoisie attempted to curb the power & privilege of the monarchy, aristocracy, n clergy
Wanted to create a limited constitutional monarchy

5

What time is the radical phase of the revolution?

1791-1794

6

Radical phase of the revolution

Proletariats of Paris seized control
Attempt to create a democratic republic
More egalitarian society

7

Thermidor phase (end phase) of the revolution

Moderate bourgeoise re asserted itself
Focused on restoring order

8

What time was the Thermidorian phase?

1794-1799

9

What is the government of the Thermidorian phase called? Who did they completely depend on?

The Directory
The military

10

What is a coup d'état?

LMFAOOO

11

What happened in November of 1799?

Napoleon Bonaparte staged a coup d'état
Embarked a campaign to create a French empire

12

When was Napoleon Bonaparte defeated?

1815

13

What is the Ancien Régime (old regime)?

The traditional hierarchy of 18th century France composed of 3 estates

14

What is the first estate made up of?

Clergy

15

What is the second estate made up of?

Nobility

16

What is the third estate made up of?

Citizenry (basically everyone else that's not clergy or nobility)

17

What 3 groups can the 3rd estate be divided into?

1)Bourgeoise
2)Proletariat (urban workers)
3)Peasantry

18

Why did France face a national debt under Louis XVI?

Bc he borrowed money to finance wars and maintain an army

19

What did Louis XVI try to do to get rid of the national debt? What was the reaction

He attempted to tax the nobles
However they resisted

20

What did Louis XVI do when the nobles resisted to pay taxes?

Calls a meeting of the estates general

21

What were the estates allowed when they were called by the king to do?

They were allowed to present a list of concerns and proposals to the king
Cahiers de doléances

22

What are cahiers de doléances?

A list of grievances

23

During the moderate phase what was it that the 3rd estate wanted?

Demanded that the number of representatives for the 3rd estate be doubled
Vote by head not by order

24

Why did the demands of the 3rd estate pose a dilemma for Louis XVI?

Bc it would give 3rd estate unprecedented power
However it could be used to get the tax reforms Louis XVI and his ministers needed to solve the financial crisis

25

What time did the French Revolution take place?

1789-1799

26

What important event happened in June 17 1789?

Third estate declared themselves the National Assembly

27

Tennis Court Oath

National Assembly vowed that they would not disband until a new constitution had been written for France

28

Why did the National Assembly make the Tennis Court Oath?

Bc they were locked out of their meeting hall

29

What did Louis XVI do on June 27 1789?

He decreed that all members of the estates general join the National Assembly
National Assembly becomes the National Constituent Assembly

30

Maupeou (1770-1774)

Shut down the traditional parlements and created new ones, “cutting the fact” of the government and making it more efficient

31

Turgot (1774-1776)

Was a physiocrat who eliminated the corvée, broke up government monopolies, and placed a single direct tax on everybody.

32

What happens on July 14 1789?

amidst bread riots and rumors of military threat, the people of Paris storm the Bastille to get guns and weapons, lead by the Marquis de Lafayette, who waves the tricolor flag

33

What was the Great Fear?

Countryside
spurred by military rumors of the kind reasserting feudal practices. They burned the legal documents and wanted to reclaim rights and properties lost during the resurgence

34

What was the Declaration of Rights of Man and the Citizen?

August 27 1789
Espoused individual rights and liberties for all citizens

35

What and when was the March to Versailles?

October 1789
Parisian women 11 mile March to Versailles to retrieve king and bring him back to Paris

36

What did the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen say?

All men are born and remain free and equal.
All men have the right to liberty, property, security.
All men are legally equal.
Taxes may only be imposed if by common consent.
All men are entitled to due process.
All men are innocent until proven guilty.

37

What was the Chapelier Law?

free market without special regulations.

38

What set the stage for the radical phase of the revolution?

Relocation of King and National Assembly to Paris

39

Civil constitution of the clergy

Combined church and state
Piece of legislation that turned clergymen into employees of govt
Turned church property into property of the state

40

What was the significance of Louis XVI signing the Civil Constitution of the Clergy?

Power of the nobility and church had been broken
France is now a constitutional monarchy

41

What are some things that helped spur the revolution into a more radical phase?

Kings attempt to secretly flee Paris June 1791
Outbreak of war between Austria and Prussia April 1792
Division of National Assembly
Rise of sans culottes

42

What is the flight to Varennes?

Louis XVI attempt to flee
He lost trust from Parisians afterwards

43

What did the National Convention aim to do in September 1792?

Voted to abolish the monarchy
Voted to proclaim France a republic

44

What did the convention do in January of 1793?

Put Louis XVI on trial for treason

45

Why were two factions created within the national convention?

It was over the debate that followed Louis XVI conviction for treason

46

What were the 2 factions of the national convention

Jacobins
Girondins

47

Jacobins

Refuse that he must die
Came from lower bourgeoisie

48

Girondins

Wealthy bourgeoise
Mostly opposed to executing him