Flashcards in The Rise Of Sovereignty In Russia Deck (41):
What who are the Boyars?
Old nobility who controlled the bureaucracy
What was the Time of Troubles? (1604-1613)
Period of anarchy and civil war after the reign of Ivan of the Terrible
How was the Times of Troubles resolved?
It was resolved by the Zemski Sobor by deciding to choose 17 yr old Mikhail Romanov as tsar
As tsar what was Mikhail Romanov able to do?
He brought stability and centralization to Russia
What are some common Russian themes during this time?
2) relatively backward
What was the Zemsky Sobor?
An advisory assembly convened by the tsar
Literally it means "Assembly of the land"
What are some long term conflicts in Russia during this time?
1) ppl vs. elite
2) tradition vs. modernity
Who was the patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church?
Nikon wanted reform of the church, what were some of his ideas?
Wanted reform with worship practices
Wanted reform with bible
Didn't want the church to be torn apart
What was an issue that Nikon faced when he wanted to reform?
Old believers like to stick to tradition and told Nikon that if he continues with the reform they will branch off and create their own church which was exactly what Nikon DIDNT want
When did Peter I become the tsar? Who came before him?
1682 when he was 10 years old
Tsar before him was Theodore Romanov
Who did Peter I co-tsar with? Why?
With his brother Ivan V
Bc he was Ivan V was "touched in the head"
Who protected Peter I and Ivan V when they ruled as tsars? Why?
The streltsy; so that nobody would try to take their throne
Who was Peter I and Ivan V regent?
Their older sister Sophia
Describe the regent of Peter and Ivan
Sophia their older sister
She whispered things to Peter when political affairs were brought up to him
She attempted to take their throne
What happens when Ivan V dies?
Peter I rules alone
Who doesn't Peter I trust? Why?
The boyars and the streltsy
Bc he wanted to protect the power of the tsar from the nobility and increase Russia's military power (by himself)
What happened in 1697- 1698?
Peter travels to the west to observe what they do in Western Europe so that he can modernize Russia
What happened while Peter I was away looking at how to modernize Russia?
The streltsy had a rebellion
How did Peter I put down the boyars and streltsy rebellion?
By executing leaders and publicly displaying it for everyone to see
Why did the streltsy have a rebellion when Peter I went on a trip to Western Europe in 1697-1698?
Because they feared what new ideas Peter might bring back from Western Europe and thought it might jeopardize their pwr (didnt want to modernize liked traditional Russia)
After the trip to Western Europe what are some reforms that Peter I brings?
1) tells ppl to wear short clothing; less black clothing
2) women don't have to wear veils
3) makes the boyars shave their beards
4) stops granting boyar status
What was Peter I greatest innovation? What was his goal?
Goal = warm water port
What/ who are the streltsy?
Nobility; guards of the Moscow garrison
What was the main reason for the Great Northern War between Sweden and Russia?
Peter wanted to expand into the Baltic states but Sweden controls it so he has to fight Sweden for the Baltic states
Why does Peter I want the Baltic states?
Bc he wants warm water ports
Who ultimately won the great northern war? What battle determined the ultimate winner?
The Battle of Poltava in 1709 where the Russians crush the Swedish army
What was the Treaty of Nystad (1721)?
The treaty that ended the great northern war
Gives Russia territory of Estonia, Livonia & a piece of Finland
Establishes new Russian capital at St. Petersburg (in piece of Finland)
What does Peter I consider as his "window to the west"?
Capital @ St.Petersburg
Bc he's trying to show Western Europe that Russia can be like them
(Moves Russia away from tradition)
What territories did Russia gain as a result of the Great Northern War?
Estonia, Livonia & a piece of Finland
How does Peter I try to update the tax system?
Wants to make it easier to collect and more hard for nobles to steal
Included a poll tax
Mercantilism: established joint stock companies
-govt monopoly on metallurgy & textiles
What was the poll tax brought forth by Peter I?
A tax on each individual as opposed to a tax on the household
What was the Senate of 9 members? Why was it established?
A senate whose job was to run the govt when the tsar was away
Peter I established it to prevent rebellions from happening while the tsar was away
In what ways was Peter I paranoid?
Peter I thought his political enemies would become good friends with his son Alexi and plan to overthrow him
What happens when Peter I son Alexi goes to Vienna secretly?
Peter tortures & interrogates Alexi and then executes Alexi
What were some administrative reforms that Peter I did after he interrogated his son Alexi?
Table of ranks
What was the table of ranks?
A new social hierarchy based on state service
What were some religious reforms that Peter I did after he interrogated his son Alexi?
Eliminated the position of the patriarch and replaced it with the Holy Synod
Secular control over the church
Replaced the bishops
What was the Holy Synod?
Ecclesiastical governing body
What did Peter I do when people didn't like his religious and administrative reforms?
Nothing he didn't give a crap