Epilepsy, Learning Memory, Cellular Psychology, Psychological Development Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Epilepsy, Learning Memory, Cellular Psychology, Psychological Development Deck (25)

T/F Epilepsy is a disease

False, it's a symptom


What is epilepsy?

It is a range of conditions characterised by recurrent unprovoked epileptic seizures predominantly due to synchronous firing of neurons


T/F Epilepsy is life-threatening

True, patients can die from accidental injury, suicided, and sudden unexplained death


List the stages of epileptic seizure

1) aura, patient can sense something wrong
2) focal discognitive seizure (not the whole brain)
3) secondary convulsive features (i.e limb stiffness)


What's a partial seizure

focal seizures that arise in only one hemisphere, typically caused by structural/metabolic abnormalities


What's a generalised seizure

seizures with mostly genetic causes that simultaneously in both hemispheres and rapidly spread


Genetic epilepsy is also known as ________. The on-set is usually ________ and can _______. It is likely that this is a complex genetic disorder that primarily involves _________.

Do these patients respond well to medications?

early during childhood
ion channels



Can we identify the cause of a symptomatic seizure? Do these patients respond well to medications?

Yes, we can usually identify structural or metabolic brain abnormality, but the seizure is often incompletely controlled by medication


What are the options of treatment for epilepsy

medication or surgery


Describe 6 cellular mechanisms underlying epilepsy

1) loss of inhibitory neurons, particularly common in hippocampus
2) regeneration of excitatory neurons following loss of inhibitory neurons
3) aberrant sprouting
4) alteration of intrinsic cellular channels and excitability
5) alteration of synaptic transmission
6) alteration in the extra-neuronal environment


following a physical or genetic insult, there is a latent period before epilepsy begins. What's involved in the latent period?

there are biological changes that leads to epileptogenesis
Note the changes are accelerated with each episode of epilepsy


What's the most common aetiology of epilepsy for
1) infants
2) late childhood
3) adults

1) congenital/perinatal CNS insult
2) idiopathic/genetic
3) symptomatic (trauma, ischaemia, tumours, degenerative diseases


What is the most common identifiable epileptogenic lesion? What's the treatment?

mesial temporal sclerosis
Most commonly by surgical treatment


What's the second most common epileptogenic lesion?

malformations of cortical development (genetic)


What's the most common glioma that can cause epilepsy

low grade astrocytoma


What's a cavernoma and how does it appear on MRI?

a tangled mass of tightly arranged abnormal vessels made of common hypocellular walls

appear as a characteristic "target" on T2


T/F Blood is highly epileptogenic



What's focal encephlomalacia?

focal lesion resulting from previous destructive insults such as trauma, stroke or infection. There is clear atrophy and gliosis that may lead to epilepsy


T/F Anti-epileptic drugs treatment can cure epilepsy

False, the treatment only provide symptomatic relief


What is catatonia

a state of neurogenic motor immobility and behavioral abnormality, which is linked to Schizophrenia


T/F The final stage of neuron development occurs in late childhood

False, the final stage - synaptic pruning - occurs during adolescent


What is the biochemical basis of short term memory?

It is related to AMPA receptors. With long term potentiation, AMPA receptors can be phosphorylated and can increase synaptic neurotransmitter release by retrograde signalling


What is the biochemical basis of long term memory

protein synthesis and structural changes that make certain neurons easier to fire together


What is temperament in relation to psychological development?

basic styles of interpersonal behaviour associated with basic emotional stimuli. Basically, the characteristics you are born with


What is resilience?

positive adaptation in adverse situations