Equine Female Urogenital Surgery Flashcards Preview

RUSVM Large Animal Surgery > Equine Female Urogenital Surgery > Flashcards

Flashcards in Equine Female Urogenital Surgery Deck (36):
1

What are the indications for a perineal body reconstruction?

  • Ineffective vulvar and vestibular seal
  • Failed caslicks
  • Rectovestibular injuries

2

When removing a granulosa cell tumor, is it important to remember that they are __________

highly vascularized

Place a shit ton of ligatures so that sucker doesn't bleed out

A image thumb
3

Which of the following structures is not normally incised during a perineal urethrotomy?

  • CSP
  • Skin and subcutis
  • Bulbospongiosus muscle
  • Corpus cavernosum penis

Corpus cavernosum penis​

4

What layer(s) is/are involved in a first degree perineal laceration?

mucosa

only mucosa of the vestibule/vulva

A image thumb
5

What is a perineal body transection used for?

to decrease a forward sloping vagina

A image thumb
6

What layer(s) is/are involved in a third degree perineal laceration?

Perineal body, anal sphincter, floor of rectum

A image thumb
7

Which of the following methods can be used to remove cystic calculi in mares?

  • Laparocystotomy
  • Manual removal through the urethra
  • Sphincterotomy
  • All of the above

All of the above​

8

What are the important aftercare instructions for a perineal body reconstruction?

Q image thumb

  • 4-6 weeks sexual rest
  • Episiotomy at foaling

9

5-FU ointment is used in horses to treat:

  • Habronemiasis
  • Fungal infections
  • SCC
  • None of the above

Q image thumb

SCC​

5-fluorouracil (5-FU)

A image thumb
10

In male horses, the preferred surgical approach to the urethral lumen is:

  • Ventral midline
  • Dorsal midline
  • Lateral longitudinal
  • Ventral transverse

Ventral midline​

11

What are the advantages of ovariectomy using laparoscopy vs celiotomy?

  • Smaller incision
  • Direct visualization
  • Tension free ligation
  • Shorter post op recovery

12

How is a Caslick's procedure performed?

  • 3 mm of tissue is removed from each side of the vulva
  • The two sides are sutured together with mattress sutures

A image thumb
13

What are the causes of urovagina?

  • Pneumovagina
  • Ectopic ureter (very rare)
  • Excessive closure of caslicks

14

Which of the following is not a urethroplasty technique?

  • Caslick
  • Brown
  • Shires
  • McKinnon

Caslick

Caslick procedure is aka vulvoplasty

A image thumb
15

What time during the estrous cycle is ideal for performing an ovariectomy?

Diestrus or anestrus

Reduces bleeding

16

What surgery is performed to prevent urovagina?

vaginoplasty or urethroplasty

Caudal relocation of transverse fold (vaginoplasty) or caudal urethral extension (urethroplasty)

17

What are the fetal causes of dystocia?

  • Large foal size
  • Abnormal foal position, presentation, and/or posture
  • Deformities

18

What surgery is performed to prevent pneumovagina?

Caslick's Procedure (Vulvoplasty)

Prevents aspiration of air into the vagina (caused by poor conformation, breeding injury)

A image thumb
19

In horses, urinary calculi:

  • Are more common in males
  • Are more common in females
  • Are equally common in males and females
  • Do not occur

Are more common in males​

20

What are the indications for unilateral ovariectomy?

  • Granulosa cell tumor
  • Ovarian abscess

21

What are the two methods of rectovestibular repair?

  • Aanes method (2 stage)
  • Goetze or Vaughan method (1 stage)

22

Identify this instrument:

Q image thumb

écraseur

A image thumb
23

Which of the following methods is most useful in diagnosing urolithiasis in horses?

  • Ultrasound
  • Radiographs
  • Endoscopy
  • Thermography

Endoscopy​

24

In male horses, the preferred surgical approach for removal of proximal urethral calculi is:

  • Subischial urethrotomy
  • Laparocystotomy
  • Perineal urethrotomy
  • None of the above

Perineal urethrotomy​

25

What are the three techniques for episioplasty?

  • Caslick's procedure
  • Perineal body reconstruction
  • Perineal body transection

26

What are the indications for bilateral ovariectomy?

  • Eliminate estrous
  • Eliminate nymphomania

27

What is a rectovestibular fistula?

Laceration of dorsal vestibule into the rectum without disruption of the perineal body or anal sphincter​

A image thumb
28

What layer(s) is/are involved in a second degree perineal laceration?

mucosa and submucosa

29

What is the time limit for repositioning before needing to go for a C-section?

15 minutes

A image thumb
30

What are the clinical signs of a urovagina?

  • Vaginitis
  • Cervicitis
  • Endometritis
  • Decreased conception rates

Urovagina is also known as vesicovaginal reflux (VVR) or urine pooling

31

The preferred surgical treatment of VVR in mares is:

  • Urethrotomy
  • Urethrostomy
  • Urethroplasty
  • Vulvoplasty

Urethroplasty​

32

How is this instrument used?

Q image thumb

  • Introduced through an incision in the vagina
  • Placed around the ovary
  • The chain is pulled until the ovary is severed from its atachments

A image thumb
33

What is the most important aftercare instruction with a Caslicks procedure?

Q image thumb

Reopen before foaling!

34

Which of the following is the preferred therapy for excessively large cystic calculus in a mare?

  • Laparocystotomy
  • Manual removal thru the urethra
  • Sphincterotomy
  • None of the above

Laparocystotomy

35

What are the maternal causes of dystocia?

  • Old pelvic fractures
  • Cervical strictures
  • Uterine torsion
  • Uterine rupture

36

What is the approach for a colpotomy?

approach through the vagina

A image thumb