What are the indications for a perineal body reconstruction?
- Ineffective vulvar and vestibular seal
- Failed caslicks
- Rectovestibular injuries
When removing a granulosa cell tumor, is it important to remember that they are __________
Place a shit ton of ligatures so that sucker doesn't bleed out
Which of the following structures is not normally incised during a perineal urethrotomy?
- Skin and subcutis
- Bulbospongiosus muscle
- Corpus cavernosum penis
Corpus cavernosum penis
What layer(s) is/are involved in a first degree perineal laceration?
only mucosa of the vestibule/vulva
What is a perineal body transection used for?
to decrease a forward sloping vagina
What layer(s) is/are involved in a third degree perineal laceration?
Perineal body, anal sphincter, floor of rectum
Which of the following methods can be used to remove cystic calculi in mares?
- Manual removal through the urethra
- All of the above
All of the above
What are the important aftercare instructions for a perineal body reconstruction?
- 4-6 weeks sexual rest
- Episiotomy at foaling
5-FU ointment is used in horses to treat:
- Fungal infections
- None of the above
In male horses, the preferred surgical approach to the urethral lumen is:
- Ventral midline
- Dorsal midline
- Lateral longitudinal
- Ventral transverse
What are the advantages of ovariectomy using laparoscopy vs celiotomy?
- Smaller incision
- Direct visualization
- Tension free ligation
- Shorter post op recovery
How is a Caslick's procedure performed?
- 3 mm of tissue is removed from each side of the vulva
- The two sides are sutured together with mattress sutures
What are the causes of urovagina?
- Ectopic ureter (very rare)
- Excessive closure of caslicks
Which of the following is not a urethroplasty technique?
Caslick procedure is aka vulvoplasty
What time during the estrous cycle is ideal for performing an ovariectomy?
Diestrus or anestrus
What surgery is performed to prevent urovagina?
vaginoplasty or urethroplasty
Caudal relocation of transverse fold (vaginoplasty) or caudal urethral extension (urethroplasty)
What are the fetal causes of dystocia?
- Large foal size
- Abnormal foal position, presentation, and/or posture
What surgery is performed to prevent pneumovagina?
Caslick's Procedure (Vulvoplasty)
Prevents aspiration of air into the vagina (caused by poor conformation, breeding injury)
In horses, urinary calculi:
- Are more common in males
- Are more common in females
- Are equally common in males and females
- Do not occur
Are more common in males
What are the indications for unilateral ovariectomy?
- Granulosa cell tumor
- Ovarian abscess
What are the two methods of rectovestibular repair?
- Aanes method (2 stage)
- Goetze or Vaughan method (1 stage)
Identify this instrument:
Which of the following methods is most useful in diagnosing urolithiasis in horses?
In male horses, the preferred surgical approach for removal of proximal urethral calculi is:
- Subischial urethrotomy
- Perineal urethrotomy
- None of the above
What are the three techniques for episioplasty?
- Caslick's procedure
- Perineal body reconstruction
- Perineal body transection
What are the indications for bilateral ovariectomy?
- Eliminate estrous
- Eliminate nymphomania
What is a rectovestibular fistula?
Laceration of dorsal vestibule into the rectum without disruption of the perineal body or anal sphincter
What layer(s) is/are involved in a second degree perineal laceration?
mucosa and submucosa
What is the time limit for repositioning before needing to go for a C-section?
What are the clinical signs of a urovagina?
- Decreased conception rates
Urovagina is also known as vesicovaginal reflux (VVR) or urine pooling
The preferred surgical treatment of VVR in mares is:
How is this instrument used?
- Introduced through an incision in the vagina
- Placed around the ovary
- The chain is pulled until the ovary is severed from its atachments
What is the most important aftercare instruction with a Caslicks procedure?
Reopen before foaling!
Which of the following is the preferred therapy for excessively large cystic calculus in a mare?
- Manual removal thru the urethra
- None of the above
What are the maternal causes of dystocia?
- Old pelvic fractures
- Cervical strictures
- Uterine torsion
- Uterine rupture
What is the approach for a colpotomy?
approach through the vagina