You note this lesion on the free portion of the penis in a bull. What is your most likely diagnosis?
At what age do you normally see fibropapillomas in ruminants?
6 months - 1 year
Older animals build immunity to the warts, so they regress on their own
What is the cause of fibropapillomas in ruminants?
Bovine Papilloma Virus
When the penis is prevented from coming out of the prepuce, this is termed:
T/F: The prognosis for a bull treated for penile warts is good for life, but poor for reproductive soundness
Prognosis is good for reproductive soundness and live
What are the major treatment options for penile warts?
- Autogenous or commercial wart vaccine
Penile hair rings may cause necrosis of the distal portion of the penis. What is the recommended treatment for penile hair rings in the bull?
cut it off
Literally just cut the hair ring off of the penis. Don't try to make this harder than it needs to be.
You notice this band of connective tissue linking the ventral aspect of the glans penis to the preputial mucosa in a 7-month-old bull. What is your most likely diagnosis?
This is normal in a 7-month-old bull. Separation of this connective tissue should be complete by 9 months of age. If it is still present after 9 months, the diagnosis would be persistent frenulum
Penile hematoma is also known as:
broken penis, fractured penis, ruptured penis
T/F: Preputial prolapse is commonly seen as a sequela to penile hematoma
Penile hematoma predisposes bulls to preputial prolapse
Where would you most likely observe swelling in the case of penile hematoma in a bull?
ventral abdomen, just cranial to scrotum
(distal to the sigmoid flexure)
T/F: In the case of penile hematoma, the corpus cavernosum ruptures through the tunica albuginea on the dorsal aspect
What is the tissue that surrounds the urethra in the bull?
What is the most common location for penile hematoma in the bull?
distal sigmoid flexure
What is the classic signalment associated with penile hematoma in bulls?
Young (<2 yrs) horned beef Hereford cattle
The skin incision in the surgery for correction of hematoma of the penis in the bull is:
- An oblique incision over the swollen area just cranial to the rudimentary teats
- A longitudinal incision over the swollen area just cranial to the rudimentary teats
- An oblique incision over the swollen area just caudal to the rudimentary teats
- A longitudinal incision over the swollen area just caudal to the rudimentary teats
- A midline incision over the swollen area just cranial to the rudimentary teats
An oblique incision over the swollen area just cranial to the rudimentary teats
Post-op care after medical or surgical treatment of penile hematoma in the bull requires sexual rest for at least ________
In a case of penile hematoma, there is no difference in prognosis whether treated medically or surgically if the hematoma is less than _____
- 78% successful with surgery
- 80% successful with conservative treatment
- No difference whether treated medically or surgically if small
- 80% successful with surgery
- 33% successful with conservative treatment
- Surgery increases prognosis for breeding soundness if hematoma is large
What is the most likely diagnosis in this 2 year old bull?
With medical and/or surgical treatment of preputial injuries in bulls, roughly what percentage return to breeding soundness?
Regarding preputial injuries in bulls, longitudinal lacerations have a better prognosis than circumferential lacerations, and result in a decreased risk of __________
Preputial laceration complex in bulls usually involves a large amount of bacterial infection. This complex is most commonly seen in what types of cattle breeds?
Bos indicus breeds have a pendulous prepuce
Surgical reconstruction of the prepuce is termed:
What is the approximate success rate for circumcision & posthioplasty for preputial injuries in bulls?
There's no significant difference in outcome between the surgical techniques
Penile deviation in the bull results from slippage of the __________
dorsal apical ligament
Penile deviation is seen in middle aged to older bull
T/F: Electroejaculation aids in the diagnosis of penile deviation in the bull
The diagnosis is made during natural breeding.
Electroejaculation aids in the diagnosis of persistent frenulum
What form of penile deviation is most commonly seen in bulls?
- The deviation results from slippage of the dorsal apical ligament and is seen in middle-aged to older bulls.
- The diagnosis is made during natural breeding (electroejaculation is not diagnostic).
- The deviation prevents intromission and results in copulation failure
How do you repair penile deviation in bulls?
pexis of the dorsal apical ligament
Anchoring the apical ligament of the penis so it cannot slip laterally
When repairing penile deviation in bulls, strips of fascia lata may be used for reinforcement of the apical ligament. This fascia lata is harvested from the fascia covering the __________ muscle
T/F: Provided the bull gets at least 60 days of sexual rest after surgical treatment of penile deviation, the success rate is roughly 75%
Provided the bull gets at least 60 days of sexual rest after surgical treatment of penile deviation, the success rate is roughly 50%
__________ is the most common injury to the penis and prepuce of bulls managed for collection of semen
- Avulsion of the lamina interna of the prepuce from its attachment to the penis at the fornix
- If seen immediately, lavage and suture ASAP
What is the success rate associated with surgical treatment of preputial avulsion?
The only preputial injury in bulls where suturing is recommended is:
acute preputial avulsion
100% success rate with surgical treatment
Which of the following procedures would preclude use of the animal for breeding?
phallopexy and amputation
Paraphimosis in horses is most commonly the result of ________
Posthioplasty is used for:
- Treatment of penile paralysis
- Lesion removal and restoration of function to the prepuce
- Treatment of priapism
- En bloc resection
- None of the above
Lesion removal and restoration of function to the prepuce
Inability to retract the penis into the preputial cavity is termed:
T/F: In hematomas of the penis in bulls, a tear of the tunica albuginea usually occurs on the ventrum of the penis at the distal sigmoid flexure
In hematomas of the penis in bulls, a tear of the tunica albuginea usually occurs on the dorsum of the penis at the distal sigmoid flexure
In hematomas of the bull penis, a tear of the tunical albuguinea is of a:
- Transverse nature
- Longitundinal nature
- Oblique nature
- B and C
- All of the above
Define intromission using emojis: