__________ is the process of abnormal bone and cartilage formation
What is the definition of osteochondrosis dissecans (OCD)?
Lesions that penetrate the joint surface creating inflammation and effusion
Bone and cartilage form via the process of __________
Primary spongiosa is formed by __________ using calcified columns
Osteochondrosis develops due to failure of blood vessels to penetrate the calcified cartilage and occlusion of canals, causing epiphyseal necrosis.
What happens as a result of the failure of blood vessels to penetrate the calcified cartilage?
- Persistence of cartilage
- Formation of cysts
- Formation of fissures and a flap
What are the two age groups in which cartilage defects most commonly occur?
- Birth - 5 months of age
- Greater than 1 year
Are males or females more overrepresented in cases of osteochondrosis?
2:1 Male:Female ratio
What nutritional factors may lead to osteochondrosis?
- Low calcium, high phosphorus
- Trace minerals (excess zinc, copper deficit)
- Vitamin A and D deficiency
- High protein diet
- High caloric intake
T/F: Osteochondrosis causes severe lameness in horses
Osteochondrosis causes slight lameness in horses
Is OCD usually unilateral or bilateral?
Why is OCD only slightly painful?
There are no nerves in cartilage
What modalities are used to diagnose OCD?
radiographs, scintigraphy, arthroscopy, MRI
What joint is most commonly affected by OCD?
tibiotarsal joint (hock)
What is the second most common joint affected by OCD?
What are the two most common locations for OCD on the hock?
- Distal intermediate ridge of the tibia (most common)
- Lateral trochlear ridge (2nd most common)
T/F: The medial and lateral malleolus are the areas of the hock most commonly affected by OCD
The distal intermediate ridge of tibia is the most commonly affected region of the hock.
The medial and lateral malleolus are affected by OCD, but only rarely.
Which regions on the stifle are affected with OCD?
- Lateral trochlear ridge
- Medial trochlear ridge
- Medial femoral condyle (cyst)
What are the treatment options for OCD?
- Intra-articular medication
- Surgery (arthroscopy)
Beyond arthroscopy, what are some advanced surgical options for treatment of OCD?
- Ostochondral dowel grafts
- Autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT)
- Gene therapy
"Placement of in vitro cultivated chondrocytes under a periosteal flap to allow for proliferation of the cells" describes what surgical treatment for OCD?
Autogenous Chondrocyte Transplantation (ACT)
T/F: Stem cells are generically defined as undifferentiated cells that are capable of self-renewal through replication as well as differentiation into specific cell lineages
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are well characterized cells of __________ origin, and provide the basis for bone marrow transplant procedures.