Esophageal Disorders Flashcards Preview

Gastroenterology > Esophageal Disorders > Flashcards

Flashcards in Esophageal Disorders Deck (31):
1

presents as a triad of postcricoid dysphagia, esophageal webs, and iron deficiency anemia. It most usually occurs in postmenopausal women

Plummer Vinson Syndrome

2

disease caused by the protozoa. fever, swollen lymph nodes, headaches, or local swelling at the site of the bite. can lead to heart failure, enlarged esophageus, enlarged colon.

Chagas Disease

3

Only two areas of the GI tract that have stratified squamous epithelium

esophagus and rectum

4

Where does lining of GI tract change from squamous to cuboidal epithelium?

lower esophageal sphincter

5

Incomplete relaxation of lower sphincter during swallowing leading to functional obstruction and proximal dilatation. Due to diminished or absent cells in myenteric plexus

achalasia

6

Clinical presentation includes: dysphagia, regurge, chest pain, heartburn, weight loss

achalasia

7

The radiologic examination of choice in the diagnosis of achalasia

barium swallow study performed under fluoroscopic guidance. shows bird's beak appearance

8

Used to assess LES pressure & peristalsis

esophageal manometry

9

Presentation includes: chest pain, intermittent dysphagia, segmental non-peristaltic contraction, corkscrew esophagus, muscular hypertrophy

Diffuse Esophageal Spasm (DES)

10

Congenital abnormality in which the mid-portion of the esophagus is absent

esophageal atresia

11

What does the absence of gas in the abdomen suggest?

patient has either atresia without a fistula or atresia with a proximal fistula only

12

Mucosal damage produced by the abnormal reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus

GERD

13

Classic symptoms of GERD

heartburn and regurgitation

14

Herniation of portion of stomach adjacent to the esophagus through an opening in the diaphragm

hiatal hernia

15

Name the two types of hiatal hernia

sliding or paraesophageal/rolling

16

Complications include: GERD, hemorrhage, stenosis of esophagus, ulcerations, regurgitation, increased risk for respiratory disease

hiatal hernia

17

Symptoms include: heartburn, dysphagia, reflux when lying, pain when bending over

hiatal hernia

18

Name the H2 receptor antagonists

Cimetidine (Tagamet), Ranitidine (Zantac), Famotidine (Pepcid), and Nizatidine (Axid)

19

Name the proton pump inhibitors

omeprazole (Prilosec), Lansoprazole (Prevacid), Rabeprazole (Aciphex), Pantoprazole (Protonix), Esomeprazole (Nexim)

20

Acid damages lining of esophagus and causes chronic esophagitis. This specialized intestinal metaplasia can progress to dysplasia and adenocarcinoma

Barrett's Esophagus

21

Useful first diagnostic test for patients with dysphagia

barium swallow

22

Treatment for eosinophilic esophagitis

oral steroids (Fluticasone) 2 puffs/day

23

Caused by severe retching and vomiting. Tear occurs at the junction of the esophagus and stomach

Mallory-Weiss tear

24

Usually secondary to cirrhosis of the liver. Anything that increase pressure i.e. coughing can start massive bleed

Esophageal varicies

25

Etiology of esophageal varicies

portal hypertension secondary to liver cirrhosis

26

Saclike outpouching of one or more layers of the esophagus

esophageal diverticula

27

Most common of esophageal diverticulum. Located above the upper esophageal sphincter

Zenker's Diverticulum

28

Symptoms include: dysphagia, weight loss, regurge, chronic cough, aspiration

Zenker's Diverticulum

29

Arises in the distal esophagus, just above diaphragm. Pulsion diverticulum probably related to incoordination of esophageal peristalsis and relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter

epiphrenic diverticulum

30

Most common cause of esophageal perforation

endoscopy

31

Most lethal GI perforation

esophageal