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Gastroenterology > GI Cancers > Flashcards

Flashcards in GI Cancers Deck (30):
1

What is the name for a benign esophageal tumor?

leiomyoma

2

HIstological type of esophageal cancer that is more prevalent worldwide whose risk factors include chronic esophagitis, achalasia, smoking, ETOH, diet

squamous cell carcinoma

3

Countries with an increased prevalence of esophageal cancer

China and Iran

4

Common cancer in the far east (Japan).

carcinoma of the stomach

5

Common location for gastric polyps

antrum

6

What are the two subtypes of gastric polyps?

tubular and villous

7

Arise from smooth muscle of the GI tract. 75% are benign. Large protruding lesions with central ulcer.

gastric leiomyoma

8

Treatment of gastric leiomyoma

excision with 2 – 3cm margin

9

Histological subtype of adenocarcinomas of the stomach that presents as a deep penetrated ulcer with shallow edges. Usually transmural.

ulcerated carcinoma

10

Histological subtype of adenocarcinomas of the stomach that presents as large intraluminal tumors with late metastasis.

polipoid carcinoma

11

Histological subtype of adenocarcinomas of the stomach that is confined to mucosa and submucosa and has best prognosis

Superficial spreading carcinomas

12

Histological subtype of adenocarcinomas of the stomach that involves all layers of the stomach, has poor prognosis, and "leather-bottle" appearance on xray

Linitis plastica

13

Cancer characterized by anorexia with an aversion to meat

adenocarcinoma of the stomach

14

What is the treatment for gastric lymphomas?

radiation

15

One of the leading causes of cancer mortality. Rarely before 50 y/o. Less than 20% live longer than one year

Pancreatic cancer

16

Most common location for pancreatic cancer

head of the pancreas

17

Tumor marker associated with pancreatic cancer

C 19.9

18

Surgical procedure for cancer of the pancreas head only

Whipple

19

“Islet cell” tumor of the pancreas. Leads to hypergastrinemia and gastric acid hypersecretion

Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome

20

Laboratory test with high sensitivity but poor specificity for diagnosis of ZE syndrome

Fasting serum gastrin measurement

21

What are the most common causes of liver cancer?

HBV, HCV, Cirrhosis

22

Sx include: loss of appetite and weight, jaundice, swelling of abdomen, and painful abdomen

liver cancer

23

Important test for diagnosis of liver cancer

AFP (alpha fetoprotein) blood test

24

Extremely rare. Can present with abdominal pain, N/V, bleeding, gastric outlet obstruction

small bowel carcinomas

25

Imaging that is ordered for suspected small bowel carcinoma

UGI/SBFT and CT scan

26

About how long is it currently thought that the progression of the adenocarcinoma of colon takes?

10 years

27

What are the two main type of colorectal polyps?

adenomas and hyperplastic polyps

28

typically develop hundreds to thousands of colon polyps. colorectal cancer usually ocurrs by age 40

Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP)

29

What are the recommendations for follow-up care of colorectal cancer?

Serial carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) measurements, colonoscopy one year after removal of colorectal cancer, and surveillance colonoscopy every three to five years

30

most important tool doctors have to determine a patient’s cancer prognosis

staging