Flashcards in GI Cancers Deck (30):
What is the name for a benign esophageal tumor?
HIstological type of esophageal cancer that is more prevalent worldwide whose risk factors include chronic esophagitis, achalasia, smoking, ETOH, diet
squamous cell carcinoma
Countries with an increased prevalence of esophageal cancer
China and Iran
Common cancer in the far east (Japan).
carcinoma of the stomach
Common location for gastric polyps
What are the two subtypes of gastric polyps?
tubular and villous
Arise from smooth muscle of the GI tract. 75% are benign. Large protruding lesions with central ulcer.
Treatment of gastric leiomyoma
excision with 2 – 3cm margin
Histological subtype of adenocarcinomas of the stomach that presents as a deep penetrated ulcer with shallow edges. Usually transmural.
Histological subtype of adenocarcinomas of the stomach that presents as large intraluminal tumors with late metastasis.
Histological subtype of adenocarcinomas of the stomach that is confined to mucosa and submucosa and has best prognosis
Superficial spreading carcinomas
Histological subtype of adenocarcinomas of the stomach that involves all layers of the stomach, has poor prognosis, and "leather-bottle" appearance on xray
Cancer characterized by anorexia with an aversion to meat
adenocarcinoma of the stomach
What is the treatment for gastric lymphomas?
One of the leading causes of cancer mortality. Rarely before 50 y/o. Less than 20% live longer than one year
Most common location for pancreatic cancer
head of the pancreas
Tumor marker associated with pancreatic cancer
Surgical procedure for cancer of the pancreas head only
“Islet cell” tumor of the pancreas. Leads to hypergastrinemia and gastric acid hypersecretion
Laboratory test with high sensitivity but poor specificity for diagnosis of ZE syndrome
Fasting serum gastrin measurement
What are the most common causes of liver cancer?
HBV, HCV, Cirrhosis
Sx include: loss of appetite and weight, jaundice, swelling of abdomen, and painful abdomen
Important test for diagnosis of liver cancer
AFP (alpha fetoprotein) blood test
Extremely rare. Can present with abdominal pain, N/V, bleeding, gastric outlet obstruction
small bowel carcinomas
Imaging that is ordered for suspected small bowel carcinoma
UGI/SBFT and CT scan
About how long is it currently thought that the progression of the adenocarcinoma of colon takes?
What are the two main type of colorectal polyps?
adenomas and hyperplastic polyps
typically develop hundreds to thousands of colon polyps. colorectal cancer usually ocurrs by age 40
Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP)
What are the recommendations for follow-up care of colorectal cancer?
Serial carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) measurements, colonoscopy one year after removal of colorectal cancer, and surveillance colonoscopy every three to five years