GI Health Maintenance Flashcards Preview

Gastroenterology > GI Health Maintenance > Flashcards

Flashcards in GI Health Maintenance Deck (33):
1

What cancer are the following risk factors for: older than 50, h/o polyps, inflammatory bowel dz, african american or jewish descent, type II DM

colorectal cancer

2

Type of polyps that do NOT increase risk of colorectal cancer

hyperplastic

3

Mutation in what gene is related to familial adenomatous polyposis?

APC gene

4

develop thousands of polyps in the colon and rectum from teens to early adulthood. Cancer develops as early as age 20. By age 40 almost all people with this disorder have colon cancer if the colon isn't removed to prevent it

familial adenomatous polyposis

5

Defect in either the gene MLH1 or MSH2 but can be caused by other gene mutations. Multiple polyps develop. Lifetime risk of colorectal cancer in people with this condition may be 80%. Women with this are susceptible to endometrial cancer

HNPCC aka Lynch syndrome

6

Treatment of what previous cancers increases risk for colorectal cancer?

testicular and prostate cancer

7

Screening procedure that doesn't require sedation or a specialist. Done every 5 yrs. Only views 1/3 of colon.

flexible sigmoidoscopy

8

Preferred screening method that can view entire colon. Can biopsy and remove polyps. Done every 10 yrs. Requires full bowel prep and sedation

colonoscopy

9

Screening procedure that can view entire colon. Doesn't require sedation. Need full bowel prep and done every 5 yrs. Can't remove polyps and can only detect polyps >1cm

double contrast barium enema

10

Screening procedure that can view entire colon, is done every 5 yrs, requires bowel prep, doesn't require sedation. Will need colonoscopy if abnormal

virtual colonoscopy

11

Test that doesn't require bowel prep, done at home, has to be done yearly, and require 3 different stool samples. May produce a lot of false positives

Fecal occult blood test (FOBT)

12

Dietary restrictions for Fecal occult blood test (FOBT)

avoid NSAIDs, vitamin C, red meats

13

What is the main difference between fecal immunochemical test (FIT) and Fecal occult blood test (FOBT)?

No pre-test dietary or medication restrictions for FIT

14

At what age should African Americans begin colonoscopies?

45 yrs

15

How often should a patient with inflammatory bowel disease (UC and Crohn's) have a colonoscopy?

every 1-2 yrs

16

How often should a patient with a personal h/o of adenomatous polyps or colon cancer have a colonoscopy?

1 yr post resection then every 3-5 yrs

17

At what age should should a patient with familial adenomatous polyposis begin colorectal screening?

yearly flexible sigmoidoscopy beginning at age 10-12 years

18

At what age should a patient with hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC) being colorectal screening?

colonoscopy every 1-2 years beginning at age 20-25 years or 10 years before the youngest case in the immediate family

19

What cancer are the following risk factors for: HBV, HCV, hereditary hemochromatosis, cirrhosis?

Hepatocellular carcinoma

20

What patient populations are screened for hepatocellular carcinoma?

all cirrhotic patients and those w/chronic Hep B who are Asian/African or have family h/o

21

If Casper the Ghost (who is obviously caucasian) had a chronic Hepatitis B + infection, what would be the screening guidelines for him?

Start men > 40. His girlfriend would start screening at 50 yrs

22

What is the recommended screening test for hepatocellular carcinoma?

liver ultrasound every 6 months

23

What cancer has the following risk factors: >55yrs, male, ETOH/tobacco use, obesity, and diet high in processed meats?

esophageal cancer

24

Term for narrowing of distal esophagus

achalasia

25

Term for esophageal papillomas

tylosis

26

Medical conditions that can benefit from increasing the intake of dietary fiber

hemorrhoids, constipation, diarrhea, diverticulosis

27

helps pull water into the colon making the stool softer and easier to pass and helps treat constipation

insoluble fiber

28

helps to absorb water from the colon and can bulk up the stool to treat chronic diarrhea

soluble fiber

29

Complications of chronic constipation

hemorrhoids, anal fissures, diverticulosis

30

Daily fiber recommendations for men and women

Women - 25 grams per day. Men - 38 grams per day

31

Percent of population between ages of 60 and 80 that have diverticular disease

~50%

32

Risk factors for this medical condition include: large meals, laying down after a meal, obesity, ETOH, carbonation, coffee, tea, smoking, pregnancy

GERD

33

What condition do the following meds cause to worsen: NSAIDs, beta-blockers, Ca channel blockers, bronchodilators, TCAs, Dopamine active drugs?

GERD